1. Alluvial soils are of two types,
a) alluviums along the main rivers like Tapi, Godavari, Bhima, Krishna, etc.
b) coastal alluviums as noticed on the coastal side of Thane and Raigad districts.
2. The former are more clayey and the latter more silty and sandy in nature. Both types of soils are very fertile.
1. The Deccan trap has given rise to laterites and lateritic soils in the southern part of Raigad, most of Rathagiri, western part of Satara, Sangli, Nashik and Kolhapur districts.
2. Because of alkaline reaction of the percolating water, the silica from the original rock disintegrates leaving a residue of sesqui-oxides in the rock as well as in the soil. It has
1. In western Maharashtra, these soils are observed in the western portion of Pune district and also in Thane and Raigad districts.
2. These soils are formed from mixed parent material such as granite, gneiss, schist, trap, etc. On hills slopes, the soils are coarse, sandy in nature while in valleys they are clay loams.
3. The soils of the hill slopes may be only
1. These soils covering the maximum area in the Maharashtra. They are derived from Deccan trap and are found in all districts except Ratnagiri district and parts of Chandrapur district.
2. These soils have high potash content, fair to less than fair phosphates and a low nitrogen and organic matter content.
3. There clay content varies from 30-60 per c
Rice soils of Maharashtra are
1. Black soils .
2. Red soils .
3). Lateritic soils.
4). Alluvial soils .
5). Forest and hill soils.
6). Saline alkali soils.
1. Upland or dryland rice is grown with natural rainfall, mostly in hilly or newly cleared areas where the topography does not permit impounding water for irrigation.
2. Upland rice fields are generally dry, unbunded, and directly seeded.
3. Land utilized in upland rice production is low, due to low lying, drought-prone, rolling, or steep sloping.
1. Deep-water or floating rice is grown in low-lying areas that may become submerged to depths of 1-5 m during the monsoon or rainy seasons.
2. The stems of floating rice elongate as the water rises and the leaves float on the surface of the water.
3. When water levels are above 100 cm, the crop is known as floating rice, while Tidal Wetlands occur where water levels
1. Rainfed or lowland rice is grown in standing water impounded by bunds or levees from natural rainfall. Supplemental irrigation is not provided.
2. Production is variable because of the lack of technology used in rice production.
3. Rainfed lowland farmers are typically challenged by poor soil quality, drought/flood conditions, and erratic yields.
1. Irrigated or flooded rice is grown in standing water impounded by bunds or levees. Water needed in excess of that supplied by natural rainfall is provided by irrigation.
2. The depth of water in the paddy seldom exceeds 15 cm.
3. Irrigated ecosystems are the primary type found in East Asia.
4. Irrigated ecosystems provide 75% of Global rice production.
Common name: Golden apple snail, golden miracle snail
Latin names: Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck)
Conditions favourable : The golden apple snail is prevalent in wetland such as seasonal swamps or rice fields. It can also be found in irrigation canals and rivers. It has both gills and a lung-breathing organ. It digs deep into the mud and surfaces again after renewed flooding. During drought, it closes its operculum. Mating occurs any time of the day in all se