|Package of Practices
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1. These hoppers include, whitebacked plant hopper and brown planthopper. Both nymphs and adults of these pests suck the cell sap particularly from the leaf-sheath from July to October.
2. The crop dries up in patches. As the plants dry up, the hoppers migrate to the adjoining plants and kill them. In a few days, the area of the dry patches enlarges.
3. About one month after transplanting, a few plants in the field should be slightly tilted and tapped 2 or 3 times at the base at weekly interval.
4. If minimum 5 plant hoppers per hill are seen floating in the water, only then the crop should be treated with insecticide.
5. The plant hoppers can be controlled by spraying 40 ml Confidor 200 SL (imidacloprid) or 800 ml Ekalux/Quinguard 25 EC (quinalphos) or one litre Coroban/Dursban 20 EC (chlorpyriphos) or 560 ml Thiodan/Endocel 35 EC (endosulfan) in 100 litres of water per acre. Repeat the spray if necessary.
6. For better effectiveness, direct the spray towards the base of the plants. If the damage is noticed at hopper burn stage, treat the affected spots along with their 3-4 metre periphery immediately as these spots harbour high population of the insect.
1. Caterpillars of skipper (Pelopidas mathias) are yellowish greenwith four white dorsal stripes.
2. It has a large head and tapering body The caterpillars defoliate the plant.
3. The adult is a fast moving skipper.
1. Homed caterpillar (Melanitis leda ismene) IS a minor pest of rice.
2. Female adult is dark brown butterfly, which lays white eggs on rice leaves.
3. Caterpillars are green in colour. It feed’s on the leaves at night and remains stationary during daytim.
4. Pupation takes place on leaf. The insect generally infests the crop during vegetative phase mainly on lowland rice.
1. The larvae of these insects bore into the stem and cause damage from July to October.
2. The affected young plants show dead-hearts (yellowing and drying of central shoot) whereas the old ones produce empty earheads which turn white and stand erect.
3. The fields showing more than 5% dead hearts (economic threshold level) should be sprayed with 350 ml of Hostathion 40 EC (triazophos) or 560 ml of Monocil 36 SL (monocrotophos) or 1 litre of coroban / Dursban/ Lethal/ Chlorguard /Durmet / Classic/ Force 20 EC (chlorpyriphos) in 100 litres of water per acre.
4. Further application of any of these insecticides may be repeated as and when damage reaches economic threshold level.
1. Root aphids (Rhopalosiphum rufiabdommalls and tetraneura nigriabdominalis) are recorded for the first time in India, causing severe damage to the rice crop under upland conditions in the entire region (Sbylesha et a/. , 2006).
2. Two species of root aphids VIZ., black root aphids (Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis) and brown root aphid (Tetraneura nigriabdominalis) infest the roots of upland rice.
3. The brown root aphid causes more damage than the black aphid. The infestation starts from 48 DAS and the incidence nymphs continue to increase till 83 DAS followed by a decrease at 90 DAS.
4. The aphids feed on roots m colonies around the upper and middle parts of the roots by sucking the sap. The leaves of infested plants become yellowish, wilt and result m stunted growth of plant. The infestation reduces the number of tillers resulting and low yield.
1. Gundhibug (Leptocorisa oratorious) is the most serious pests of rice under upland and lowland conditions.
2. Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from the developing grains, which results chaffy grains.
3. Nymphs are more destructive than adults. These bugs cause Yield losses up to 20-40%.
1. Rice green semilooper (Naranga aenescens) is one of the major pests of rice.
2. It infests 30-40 days old upland crop and continues to Damage the crop up to 65 days. The larvae feed mainly on leaves and defoliate them.
3. Apanteles sp. parasitize up to 80% of green semilooper in field conditions.
1. The outbreak of rice ear cutting caterpillar (Mythimna separata) was recorded during 1982 initially in Assam and then spread to Manipur, Arunachal, Meghalaya and Tripura.
2. It is an important pest of rice in the region. During outbreaks, it causes 100% damage to the standing crop•
3. The larvae cut the ear head and leave behind the rice shoot resulting in as if the animals have grazed it. It directly affects the yield of the crop.
1. Rice hispa (Dicladispa armigera) is a small blue-black beetle covered with spines. The grubs make long winding tunnels into leaves whereas adults scrape the chlorophyll.
2. The affected leaves turn whitish and membranous and ultimately dry up. Scrapping of the upper surface of the leaf blade leaving only the lower epidermis as white streaks parallel to the midrib.
3. Tunnelling of larvae through the leaftissue causes irregular translucent white patches that are parallel to the leaf veins. Damaged leaves wither off and damaged leaves turn rice fields whitish and membranous that appears burnt when severely infested.
4. Severity of the damage is related to crop growth stage of attack. The larvae move down between the leaf sheaths until they reach the apical bud or one of the lateral buds.
5. They lacerate the tissue of the bud and feed until pupation. Hispa occurs severely in Assam, Meghalaya and Tripura bordering Bangladesh. Rice hispa outbreaks were recorded in 1987 in Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh.
6. Spraying of Beauveria bassiana@3 g/l controls rice hispa.
1. Gall midge (Orseolia oryzae) is a serious pest in Manipur and also occurs throughout the region as a common pest.
2. It is found in both lowland and upland conditions during the tillering stage of the rice plant. It has also been reported to occur in deep water rice in Assam.
3. Its Population density is favoured mainly by cloudy or rainy weather, cultivation of high tillering varieties, intensive management practices and low parasitization.
4. The adults are nocturnal and they can easily be Collected using light traps. They mate soon after emergence. Each female midge mates only once. It can lay as many as 100-200 eggs in its lifespan of 4 days.
5. The male midge lasts for 12-18 hours soon after emergence. larval and pupal development is completed inside the gall. One maggot occupies one tiller, Three to four larval stages are observed in 14-20 days. Pupation takes 2-7 days. Before adult emergence, the pupa uses its abdominal spines to reach the top of the gall.
6. The feeding causes formation of a gall called 'silver' or 'onion' shoots. It makes exit holes for adult emergence. During the dry season, the insect remains dormant as a pupa in dormant buds of alternate host.
7. Rice gall midge is parasitized by six hymenopterous parasitoids like Tetrastichus sp., Ceratosolen sp., Aneristus ceroplastate, Cocophagus sp., C. tschirchi, Metaphyars sp. under normal conditions and control the pest to the extent of 50%.