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One of the adverse impacts of extensive adoption of the high yielding varieties was the emergence of insect pests and pathogens unknown to exist in India, such as BPH, BLB and RTV. Appearing recurrently on epidemic scale in the early decades necessitated serious research efforts to manage them effectively. Of the various strategies contemplated then, host plant resistance has been the priority to take advantage of diverse resistance gene sources available in abundance in rice germplasm. The strategy paid rich dividends over the years through successive and simultaneous release of specific and multiple resistant varieties as detailed elsewhere. Cultural interventions along with other disease management measures have as well been found quite effective in minimizing crop losses due to pathogens. Of the various interventions, reduced N-use and introduction of non-cereal crops in the continuous cropping systems that helps reduce the buildup of pathogen inoculum, have been found to minimize the severity of diseases. In respect of RTV, keeping rice field bunds free of grassy weeds so as to prevent the survival of virus during non-rice seasons help break recurrence of the disease. Chemical strategy is restricted to management of fungal diseases like blast and sheath blight. Introduction and use of systemic fungicides like Carbendazim, Benomyl etc, since mid 1970s coupled with seed treatment with pyroquilon etc., have been found to provide effective control against these diseases.