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1. Parboiling is a hydrothermal treatment followed by drying before milling for the

production of milled parboiled grain.

2. Parboiling of paddy has been known in the orient for centuries. Nearly 50 per cent of the paddy produced in India at present is parboiled.

3. In general, the three major steps in parboiling, i.e. soaking, steaming and drying and have a great influence on the final c


Harvesting for transplanted puddled lowland rice

1. Taking the average duration of the crop as an indication, drain the water from the field 7 to 10 days before the expected harvest date as draining hastens maturity and improves harvesting conditions.

2. When 80% of the panicles turn straw colour, the crop is ready for harvest. Even at this stage, the leaves of some of the varieties may remain green.

3. Confirm maturity by selecting the most mature tiller and dehusk a few grains. If the rice is clear and firm, it is in hard d


Precautions for irrigation for transplanted puddled lowland rice

1. The field plot can be 25 to 50 cents depending on the source of irrigation.

2. Field to field irrigation should be avoided. Field should be irrigated individually from a channel.

3. Small bund may be formed parallel to the main bund of the field at a distance of 30 to 45cm within the field to avoid leakages of water through main bund crevices.

4. To minimize percolation loss, the depth of stagnated water should be 5cm or less.

5. In water logged condition, form


Water management for transplanted puddled lowland rice

1. Puddling and leveling minimizes the water requirement.

2. Plough with tractor drawn cage wheel to reduce percolation losses and to save water requirement up to 20%.

3. Maintain 2.5cm of water over the puddle and allow the green manure to decompose for a minimum of 7 days in the case of less fibrous plants like sunnhemp and 15 days for more fibrous green manure plants like Kolinchi (Tephrosia purpurea).

4. At the time of transplanting, a shallow depth of 2cm of water


Weed management for transplanted puddled lowland rice

1. Use of rotary weeder from 15 DAT at 10 days interval. It saves labour 

for weeding, aerates the soil and root zone, prolongs the root activity, and improves the grain filling though efficient translocation and ultimately the grain yield.

2. Cultural practices like dual cropping of rice-azolla, and rice-green manure (described in wet seeded rice section 2.5 & 2.6 of this chapter)

1. Blend the urea with crushed neem seed or neem cake 20% by weight. Powder neem cake to pass through 2mm sieve before mixing with urea. Keep it overnight before use (or) urea can be mixed with gypsum in 1:3 ratios, or urea can be mixed with gypsum and neem cake at 5:4:1 ratio to increase the nitrogen use efficiency. For treating 100 kg urea, take one kg coal-tar and 1.5 litres of kerosene. Melt coal-tar over a low flame and dissolve it in kerosene. Mix urea with the solution thoroughly in

1. Nitrogen deficiency : Plants become stunted and yellow in appearance first on lower leaves. In case of severe deficiency the leaves will turn brown and die. Deficiency symptoms first appear at the leaf-tip and progress along the midrib until the entire leaf is dead.

2. Potassium deficiency : Bluish green leaves - when young, older leaves irregular. Chlorotic and necrotic areas - grain formatio


Application of P fertilizer for transplanted puddled lowland rice

• P may be applied as basal and incorporated.

• When the green manure is applied, rock phosphate can be used as a cheap source of P fertilizer. If rock phosphate is applied, the succeeding rice crop need not be supplied with P. Application of rock phosphate + single super phosphate or DAP mixed in different proportions (75:25 or 50:50) is equally effective as SSP or DAP alone.


N management through LCC for transplanted puddled lowland rice

1. Time of application is decided by LCC score.                                                                                      

2. Take observations from 14 DAT in transplanted

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