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Production Know How
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Ten to fifteen days before transplantation plough the soil thoroughly and submerge in 5-10cm standing water. Add 2-3 t/acre of green manure and incorporate it by puddling. Then level the soil perfectly. In soils, having more than 8.5 pH apply 100-150 kg zypsum/acre.
The crop is transplanted in the mainfield at 25-30days after sowing.Transplanting is done in one of two methods: random or straight-row. In the random method, seedlings are transplanted without a definite distance or space between plants as you can see in this frame. The straight-row method follows a uniform spacing between plants. The seedlings are transplanted in straight rows. You will need planting guides to have uniform spacing. Planting guides are made of wire, twine, and wood. Set the planting guides in the field before transplanting. In this method, make sure the roots and base of the seedlings are inserted into the soil right under the loop or mark on the planting wire .After planting one row of seedlings, move the guides to the next row and then continue planting. Move backward for each subsequent row. You can also use another method of transplanting in straight rows i.e by mechanical or machine transplanter

Parachute rice transplanting

  1. The "parachute rice transplanting technique" involves planting of seedlings in a nursery under flexible plastic trays. 2. That trays have tiny holes at the bottom to facilitate movement of water and nutrients from the soil below into soil plugs through capillary action. 3. The trays are then taken out for transplantation onto the paddy fields, where the young paddy plants would be thrown out sporadically. 4. The heavy base of each young paddy plant ensures that it would not land upside down. 5. This technique has potential to provide high yield per hectare of land.


Limitations of Manual Transplanting

1. Growth duration of transplanted rice is longer than that of direct seeded rice.

2. To plant one hectare, 30-40 persons/day is required.

3. When young seedlings transplanted too deep. The bottom node will not produce tillers.

4. When young seedlings are transplanted superficially they may be easily uprooted by incoming flood water.

5. Difficult to maintain proper spacing.


How to Transplant Rice Manually

  1. After attaining the optimum stage of seedlings i.e. 4 leaf stage or about 21 to 25 days after sowing in short duration varieties and 30 to 35 days after sowing in case of long duration varieties.

2. Seedlings are lifted up carefully to minimize root injury and kept in shade to avoid water losses from the plant. If the soil of nursery bed becomes hard then seedlings should be uprooted in the presence of water as it loses the soil particles.

3. Two to three seedlings are transplanted at 20X10 cm or 20X15 cm spacing in levelled fields.).

4. Handle seedlings carefully to ensure their fast revival and rapid growth after transplanting.


Why Transplant Rice

1. It is especially recommended for lowland and irrigated rice.

2. This practice requires less irrigation, less weeding and fewer seeds, yet at the same time provides higher yields.

3. Farmers transplant paddy rice to increase the growing period for winter crops and reduce irrigation.

4. Rice transplanting facilitates double and triple cropping of winter crops with rice, matching cropping patterns to climate limitations. Rice transplanting facilitates crop rotation.

5. Rice transplanting increases efficiency in managing land across the farm.


Manual Transplanting

  1. It is more popular in India and is becoming increasingly expensive besides required plant population and transplanting distance is not maintained.

2. In this method seedlings are planted manually in well puddle and muddy soil having a thin layer of water.

3. Planting should be done in double rows in sunrise and sunset direction which helps in the better transmission of sunlight and better movement of Carbon-di-oxide in the field.

4. Manual transplanting does not require costly machines and is most suited for labour surplus areas and for small rice fields.


Limitations of Machine transplanting

  1. The good land levelling at farmers’ level is difficult.

2. Raising of special nursery is needed.

3. Creating pathways for moving to farm is difficult.

4. In dryland and rainfed conditions mechanical transplanting is not difficult.

5. Good training is needed to operate the machine properly.


How to Transplant Rice by Machine

  1. For machine transplanting the rice seedlings should be raised in trays or in mat nursery.

2. The machine can effectively plant 14-day-old rice seedlings with a field capacity of one acre per hour.

3. For machine transplanting the field should be completely levelled.

4. Drain out the field. The surface of the field hard enough to support the transplanting machine .

5. The soil is ready when a small “V” mark made in the puddled soil with a stick holds its shape. At this moisture level, the soil can hold the seedlings upright.

6. If conditions satisfy Load the seedling mats on the machine and transplant the seedlings at the selected machine setting.

7. It uses a rotary transplanting picker mechanism with a fixed row spacing of 30 cm and adjustable plant-to-plant spacing of 13 to 28 cm in steps. The seedlings are transplanted at a depth of 0.8 to four cm as desired, maintaining uniform depth of planting.


Advantages of Machine transplanting

1. By using machine transplanting we can cover more area with less labour, reduces the burden of the farmer.

 2. By using machine we can achieve uniform spacing and plant density.

3. Placing of single seedling is possible.

4. Uniform depth of transplanting of seedlings is possible.

5. Seedlings which transplanted by machine can recover fast, vigorously.


Machine Transplanting of Rice

 1. A rice transplanter is a specialized transplanter or machine fitted to transplant rice seedlings onto paddy field.

2. To overcome the struggles in paddy cultivation mechanized transplanting was introduced.

3. This saves time and labour and reduces the burden of the farmer.

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