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Production Know How
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Stage 10 - Mature grain stage


1. The individual grain is ripened, fully developed, hard, and turned yellow.

2. The upper leaves are now drying rapidly although the leaves of some varieties remain green.

3. A considerable amount of dried leaves accumulate at the base of the plant.



Stage 9 - Yellow ripening stage of rice plant

 1. The grains completely filled become hard and turns yellow gradually. This period lasts for about 7 days.



Stage 8 - Dough grain stage of rice plant

1. During this stage, the milky portion of the grain first turns into soft dough and later into hard dough.

2. The grains in the panicle begin to change from green to yellow. Senescence of tillers and leaves is noticeable.

3. The field starts to look yellowish. As the panicle turns yellow, the last two remaining leaves of each tiller begin to dry at the tips.



Stage 7 - Milk grain stage of rice plant


1. In this milky stage, the grain has begun to fill with a milky material.

2. The grain starts to fill with a white, milky liquid, which can be squeezed out by pressing the grain between the fingers.

3. The panicle looks green and starts to bend. Senescence at the base of the tillers is progressing. The flag leaves and the two lower leaves are green.



Ripening phase of rice plant

 1. Ripening stage includes Milky stage, Dough stage, and Yellowing & ripening stage.




Stage 5 - Heading of rice plant

1. Also known as the panicle exsertion stage. Heading is marked by the emergence of the panicle tip from the flag leaf sheath. 

2. The panicle continues to emerge until it partially or completely protrudes out from the sheath.



Stage 4 - Panicle initiation to booting of rice plant



1. Panicle development and growth starts with neck node differentiation.

2. The initiation of the panicle primordium starts about 30 days before heading, which indicates the commencement of the reproductive phase. The panicle primordium becomes visible to the naked eye about 7-10 days after initiation. At this stage, 3 leaves will still emerge before the panicle finally exserts.

3. The panicle development period varies from 27-46 days.

4. The panicle becomes visible as a white feathery cone 1.0-1.5 mm long. It occurs first in the main culm and then in tillers where it emerges in uneven pattern. It can be seen by dissecting the stem.

5. As the panicle continues to develop, the spikelets become distinguishable.

6. The young panicle increases in size and its upward extension inside the flag leaf sheath causes the leaf sheath to bulge. This bulging of the flag leaf sheath is called booting.

7.    Booting is most likely to occur first in the main culm. At booting, senescence (aging and dying) of leaves and non-bearing tillers are noticeable at the base of the plant.



Reproductive phase of rice plant


Reproductive phase includes Panicle Initiation, Booting, Heading and Flowering stages. 



Stage 3 - Stem elongation of rice plant

1. This stage begins before panicle initiation or it occurs during the latter part of the tillering stage. Thus, there may be an overlap of stages 2 and 3.

2. The tillers continue to increase in number and height, with no appreciable senescence of leaves noticeable. Ground cover and canopy formation by the growing plants have advanced.

3. Growth duration is significantly related to stem elongation. Stem elongation is more in varieties with longer duration. In this respect, rice varieties can be categorized into two groups: the short-duration varieties which mature in 105-120 days and the long-duration varieties which mature in 150 days.

4.    In early-maturing semi-dwarfs like IR64, the fourth internode of the stem, below the point where the panicle emerges, elongates only from 2 to 4 cm before panicle initiation becomes visible. This slide shows stems which have been dissected to show the length of the fourth internode at the panicle initiation stage.



Stage 2 - Tillering of rice plant



1. This stage extends from the appearance of the first tiller to the maximum tiller number is reached.

2. Tillers emerge from the auxiliary buds of the nodes from main stem or other tillers and displace the leaf as they grow and develop.

3. This seedling shows the position of the two primary tillers with respect to the main culm and its leaves.

4. When the fifth leaf on the main culm emerges out, the first tiller comes out from the axil of the second leaf on the culm. Similarly when the 6 th leaf on the main culm emerges the first leaf of the tiller comes from the axil of the 3 rd leaf on the culm. Thus the n th leaf on the main culm and the first leaf of the tiller that emerges out from the axil of the (n-3) leaf grow synchronously is also the case for all other tillers (Yoshida 1981).

5. After emerging, the primary tillers give rise to secondary tillers. This occurs about 30 days after transplanting.

6. The plant is now increasing in height and tillering very actively. Here is a field with plants at the early tillering stage. Note the tiller size and canopy development due to increased leafing and tiller development.


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