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‘Hand Operated Winnower’ Improved Rice Quality and Income

Mr. Dwan Khream is a small farmer of the Ri-Bhoi district in Meghalaya. Among other vegetable crops, he mainly grows rice on his 1.5 acre of land which falls under 50 per cent plain and 50 per cent sloppy categories- a prominent feature of the ‘hill farming’ in the NEH region. Despite good yield from paddy, Dwan did not make profit by selling it at nearby market as impurities mixed with rice due to tradi


Calculate the following data to characterize the performance of the dryer: 

1. Average and standard deviation of the moisture content before and after drying.  

2. Total weight loss of paddy

3. Drying rate (%/h)

4. Increase in broken grain (i.e. percentage of broken grains before drying minus percentage of broken grains after drying)

5. Increase in cracked grain (i.e. percentage of cracked grains before drying minus percentage of cracked grains after dr


Drying test

1.Paddy of a known source should be selected with grain moisture content that is typical for grain harvested in the area. 

2. The paddy should be cleaned to remove very few impurities (straws, etc).

2. Before loading the materials, mix the paddy and take at least 10 samples of the paddy of 10g each to determine variance in moisture content. 

3. In addition, sample of 500g of wet paddy is taken for laboratory analysis. If possible, take the entire weight of the padd


Evaluation of grain dryers

1. After purchase or instalment of a grain dryer it is important to evaluate its performance.  

2. This is usually done by conducting a drying test. 

3. Drying tests are important because actual performance data are often different from rated performance that is provided by the manufacturer. 



1. A drying system can only maintain quality but it cannot improve the quality of paddy. 

2. When a dryer produces poor quality paddy it is therefore important to compare the paddy from the dryer with a reference sample from the same batch that was dried under controlled conditions, e.g. in an air-conditioned room, or in the shade by spreading a thin layer and frequently mixing.

3. Otherwise it is difficult to tell whether the low quality is caused by quality reduction that o

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