Best Viewed in Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome
Package of Practices
  • A compendium of state specific and location specific recommended package of practices are provided under this head. You may be interested to see that, thanks to our IP based customisation, that only your state (the state from where you are accessing RKMP) specific information is available.
  • You are on travel? Please select the state to which you belong. You have access to your state specific content as well.
  • Look for the related information heads on right side box. Click on any of them to get the access to the appropriate information.


Panikheti FS of Nagaland

Angami and Chakhesang tribes of Nagaland have developed  a system of irrigating terraced fields for growing rice known as panikheti (Gokhle et al, 1984). Bench terrace cultivation or panikheti in Nagaland presents an excellent example of developing bench terracing for rice cultivation by using steep slopes (up to 100% or more) and rocky lands with availability of very small quantity of soil. The topsoil is maintained in the terraced bed while constructing terraces annually.

Disposal of excess water and application of irrigation water is managed by allowing water to flow from one terrace to another by providing opening in the ridge bund. In the terraced fields, agricultural operations start in December and January with digging of field with the help of spade. While digging, soils turn on residue of rice plant. Puddling starts in the month of April. After that water is allowed to enter into the terrace. By the first week of June, the terraces will be full of water. In the same month, seedlings are transplanted from nurseries in puddle lands. By the end of September, the paddy plants are bunched together. This prevents the plants from being damaged by the winds or by the weight of grains. This also reduces the loss of grains during harvest and makes the harvest easier. The components of the system are Terraces, Fish culture, Water management, Land management etc.Three types of terraced fields are found in Kohima district of Nagaland viz., i). Dzutse - water supply to these fields is regular throughout the year. Water not needed in one terrace is conveyed to another terrace through channels; ii). Khuso - water supply is through channels from streams and iii). Vakhra - fields are similar to khuso but involvement of labour is more.


Zabo FS(Farming System) of Nagaland

Zabo is an indigenous FS practiced in Nagaland, which  has a combination of forest, agriculture and animal husbandry with well- founded conservation base, soil erosion control, water resources development' and management and preservation of. The system is also called as 'ruza'. The place of origin of Zabo FS seems to be Kikruma village located at an altitude of 1,270 m in Phek districtof Nagaland inhabited by Chakesang tribe. Rice is the staple food of the Chakesang tribe.  ‘Zabo' meaning impounding water. The Zabo FS comprises of protected forest land on hilltop, well planned water harvesting tank at the middle and cattle yard and rice fields towards foothills. In case, a suitable location for water storage is not available, the run off water from the upper catchment is taken directly to rice fields which act as water source for rice crop. Special technique for seepage controlling the plots is followed, which include thorough puddling and use of paddy husks on shoulder bunds. In Zabo FS, all the agricultural operations like hoeing, puddling, ramming in rice fields are done manually with small hand tools, wooden sticks etc., which are time consuming and labour intensive. The seed rate is 60 kg/ha and transplanting time is June. The variety is grown at a spacing of 12 x 12 cm and two irrigations from the storage point (as supplement) maintaining 10 cm water depth in terraces are applied. The yield of the rice variety is about 3-4 tlha. Most of the farmers practice paddy-cum-fish culture technique as in Apatani FS and derive about 50-60 kg of fish per ha as an additional output. This system of farming is common on individually owned land of about 2.5 ha area. The various components of Zabo FS are Forest land, Water harvesting system, Cattle shed and Agriculture land.


Rice and rice based farming systems of North Eastern region

The rice farming situations in the North Eastern Hills are as follows:

1. Direct seeded, rain fed in upland (on steep slopes),

2. Direct seeded rain fed on level bench terraces,

3. Transplanted on wet terraces; and

4. Transplanted in valley lands.

Copy rights | Disclaimer | RKMP Policies