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06
Aug

Wooden hammer (Muthla)

 

1. Wooden made hammer just like iron hammer, but longer in size, having with 3-3.5 fit wooden handle, lower wooden log is of 2-2.5 kg.

2. After ploughing villagers use it for breaking big clods on field.

06
Aug

Hullers / Rice mills

1. Cleaned paddy on an average yields 72 percent rice, 22 percent husk and 6 percent bran.

2. The traditional hand pounding or foot pounding (Dhenki) has now become noncompetitive. The rice hullers, shellers and modern rice mills have gained popularity.

3. Hullers seldom give about 65 percent total yields with 20-30 percent broken besides, it does not give completely cleaned rice.

4. The most modern rice mills (single Pass) are available in 2-4 tons per hour capacity. The m

06
Aug

Grain discoloration

Symptoms

1. This occur at the time of panicle initation stage.

2. At this time normal grain color changes to brownish white color.

Management

1. Seed treatment with Bavistin (0.2%) or vitavax (0.2%) for 6 hrs.

2. Spary bavistin 0.1 %

06
Aug

Winnowing fans

1. The hand operated and power operated winnowing fans are commercially available.

2. The paddy threshed by manual beating or by pedal operated paddy thresher is cleaned by using these fans.

3. These winnowing fans consist of frame either made up of wood, angle iron, welded steel or combination of the two along with driving mechanisms namely, sprocket and chain, belt and pulleys and single or double reduction gears.

Traditional winnowing fan:

4. Base o

06
Aug

Khaira disease

Symptom

1. Usually in nursery; chlorotic/ yellow patches at leaf base on both sides of the midrib; restricted root growth and usually main roots turn brown.

Management

1. Use 25kg Znso4/ha before transplanting or sowing at time of land preparation.

2. If crop is infected then use 5 kg Znso4 + 25 kg lime in 600-700 litre water per hectare.

06
Aug

Threshing Roller

 

1. The Special quality of mahua (Madhuca indica) wood tends to use it intensively for this purpose.

2. It is two side axel rollers, which is fitted in grooves of plank connecting the bullocks.

3. Mahua is heavy in weight and also available near village.

06
Aug

Biasi system of land preparation in Bastar

1. Biasi is a set of cultural operations traditionally practiced in direct seeded rice.

2. In this operation, the field is ploughed by an indigenous plow in standing water 30–50 d after emergence.

3. Bullock plowing often followed planking and chalai (thinning and distribution) operations.

4. This system is very popular in the eastern region of India. The effectiveness of the system greatly affects yield. Often, operation is delayed because there is less rain to flood

06
Aug

Packaging

1. Good packaging provides not only convenient handling in transportation and storage but also attracts consumers to pay more. Packaging is essential to avoid spoilage and to prolong the quality.

2. Packaging of paddy/rice is also important for long-term storage to fulfill the demand of old rice in the market, particularly in case of Basmati and non-parboiled rice. Paddy/rice, if kept in open, quality may be adversely affected.

3. Packaging is closely related to labeling and bran

06
Aug

False smut

Causal organism:- ustilago noidea virus

Symptom

1. False smut start as light green ball of spores covered by a thin silver colored skin. The balls erupt exposing the orange spores.

2. As time passes spores turn dark green to black. Damage from smuts occur due to contamination of other grains by spores during harvest, miiling causing quality problems and discoloration during paraboiling and cooking.

Management

06
Aug

Improved storage structures

1. Improved bins: Different organisations developed and designed improved storage structures for scientific storage of foodgrains, which are moisture resistant and rodent-proof.

2. Brick-build godowns: These are made by brick-walls with cemented flooring for storing paddy/rice in bulk and bags.

3. Cement plastered bamboo bin: This bin developed by Post Harvest Technology Centre, Kharagpur, in which bamboo strips are used to form t

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