|Package of Practices
- A compendium of state specific and location specific recommended package of practices are provided under this head. You may be interested to see that, thanks to our IP based customisation, that only your state (the state from where you are accessing RKMP) specific information is available.
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IX. Harvesting & storage • Harvesting the crop should be done at the right time. Reaping too early or too late affects yield and seed quality. Timely harvest and threshing will ensure good grain quality, high market value, and consumer acceptance.
• The ﬁeld should be drained 1 week prior to harvesting.
• Harvesting should be done when at least 75% of the grains are matured. If the crop is harvested without proper maturity it leads to loss of viability of grains.
• The harvested material should be dried in the ﬁeld for 2-3 days.
• The grain should be free from iner t material after threshing and winnowing. The winnowed grains should be sun dried until the moisture content reaches less than 13%.
• Both over drying and under drying will lead to breakage of the grain during processing. High moister content during storage leads to loss of viability due to increased grain respiration and attack of storage insects and pests. Storing paddy
• Paddy seed is sun dried for 2-3 days continuously and then stored in gunny bags on indigenously made 4-5 feet stand to prevent pest infestation.
• Paddy seed is stored in small containers with bamboo called as ‘butta’ (in Telugu). The container is ﬁlled with paddy seed and covered with straw and then closed with cow dung paste.
• Seed for consumption purpose are stored in big size storage structure called ‘Gadhi’ with a capacity of 100-150 kunchas (300-450 kgs) of paddy seed.
• The grains should be stored in a place which is free from storage pests.
• They should not be stored in areas with less moisture content.
• The storage structure should not have perforations or holes as it helps the pests to invade. The storage place should have good aeration.
• Control of storage pests like moth and weevil infestation in paddy should be done .Fo
VIII. Pest & disease management
Effective pest & disease management is required as it helps in producing better quality grains and better yields. Major Pests of Rice in Andhra Pradesh are
3. Leaf folder
EIS,Package of Practices
- A thin ﬁlm of water (2-3 cm) should be maintained at the time of weedicide application and should not be drained up to one week. Maintain water level at 5 cm depth during ﬁrst seven days after planting and thereafter up to completion of tillering at 2 cm depth.
- Maintain water level at 5 cm depth from panicle initiation to grain maturity. Drain the water before fer tilizer application. Mid season drying discourages unproductive tillers. Drain the ﬁeld one week before harvest.Drain the ﬁeld and aerate whenever Sulphide injury occurs. Ensure drainage in deltaic alluvial soils (East and West Godavari and Nellore districts).
Water requirements of rice at different growth stages
Depth of submergence (cm)
After transplanting for 3 days (3 DAT)
DAT up to max. tillering
At max. tillering (in fer tile ﬁelds)
(in fer tile ﬁelds) NIL 5.Max. tillering to PI 2 6.P1 to 21 DA ﬂowering 5
Land preparation typically involves ploughing, harrowing, and levelling the ﬁeld to make it suitable for crop establishment. Plough the ﬁeld upto 12-15 cm deep so that the weeds and the stubbles get incorporated in the soil and get decomposed. • Ploughing should be done 3-4 weeks prior to sowing. Draft animals, such as oxen, 2-wheel tractors or 4-wheel tractors can all be used ploughing the land effectively. • After ploughing, harrowing should be done twice, with one week gap between the two. First harrowing should be done after 1 week of ploughing. The second harrowing should be done across the ﬁrst harrowing. • The land should be submerged in 2-5 cm of standing water so that pudding is done and decomposition of organic matter occurs soon. Bunds should be prepared and cleaned thoroughly as the harbour pests and diseases. • Bunds should be compacted to prevent seepage, and properly maintained at 15 cm high x 20 cm wide to prevent rat burrowing. The initial soil tillage can also be performed with a rotavator instead of a plough.
Resistant Variety PESTS/DISEASES/ABIOTIC FACTORS VARIETIES RECOMMENDED Resistant for Diseases For blast Rasi, Samba Mahsuri, NLR 9672, NLR 9674, MTU 7014, NLR 13969, Tikkanna, Pinakini, NLR 28600, IR 20 For leaf blight Improved Samba Mahsuri, IR 36, IR 20 For tungro virus Vikrarmarya, IR 20 Resistant for Pests For Brown Plant Hopper Vajram, Pratibha, Sonasali, Krishnaveni, Chaitanya & Priya For gall midge IR 36, Phalguna, Surekha, Dhanyalakshm, MTU 2400, Divya, Pothana For stem borer Sasyasree Resistant to Abiotic factors Drought tolerant Rasi, MTU 17, Cold tolerant Satya, tella hamsa Saline tolerant Vikas High yielding varieties of Rice: Abhaya, Akshaya, Amara, APHR 1, APHR 2, Apurva, Badava Mahsuri, Bapatla Sannalu, Bhadrakali, Bharani, Bhavapuri Sannalu, Chaitanya, Chandan, Cottondora Sannalu, Deepti, Dhanya Lakshmi, Divya, DRRH 1, Early Samba, Erra Mallelu, Gautami, Godavari, Gutti Akkullu, Hamsa, Hari, Indra, Indur Samba, Jagtial Mahsuri, Jagtial Samba, Jagtial Sannalu, Kakatiya, Karimnagar Samba, Kavya, Kesava, Kotha Bayyahunda, Kothamolagolukulu 74, Krishna Hamsa, Krishnaveni, Lakshmi, Mahendra, Mahsuri Manair Sona, Maruteru Sannalu, Motigold, MTU 9993, Nagarjuna, Nagavali, Nandi, Nandyal Sannalu, Nellore Mahsuri, Orugallu Pardhiva, Penna, Phalguna, Pinakini, Polasa prabha-Mahsuri, Pothana, Prabhat, Prakash, Prasanna, Pratibha, Pushkala, Raja Vadlu, Rajendra, Ramappa, Ravi, Rudrama, Sagar Samba, Saleem, Samba Mahsuri, Satya, Seshu, Shanthi, Shiva, Shravani, Simhapuri, Somasila, Sonal, Sona Mahsuri, Sonasali, Sowbhagya,Sree Kurma,Srikakulam Sannalu, Srinivas, Sriranga, Srisatya, Sugandha Samba, Sumati, Surekha, Surya, Swarna, Swarnamukhi, Swathi, Taramati, Tella Hamsa Tholakari, Tikkana, Vajram, Vamsadhara, Vamshi, Varalu, Vasistha, Vasundhara, Vedagiri, Vibhava, Vijaya Mahsuri, Vijetha, Vikramarya, Warangal. Seed Treatment a. Wet method of Seed treatment Fungicide Concentration Dithane M
•Poor stand and establishment, lack of growth and tillering.
• Unhealthy and sickly appearance of crop at 3-4 weeks after transplantion even after receipt of adequate quantities of N,P and K fer tilizers
• Basal mid rib bleaching of 3rd / 4th leaf from top at about 2-4 weeks after transplantion.
• Dark brown rusty spots on the upper par t near the tips of older and mature leaves.
EIS,Package of Practices,Nutrient Management
Nursery management • Select well ﬁlled high density seed of variety suitable to the location/season. Nursery should be prepared nearer to the main ﬁeld so as to minimize the shock during transplanting. Utmost care should be taken while preparing the nursery as it is the place where rice seedlings grow and establish. • Plough the soil thoroughly 3 to 4 times and level it perfectly. Make channels for irrigation water and drainage. Incorporate one tonne compost/FYM per 1000 m2 bed during last ploughing/puddling. • In locations of low temperature regimes (15-25oC) apply double the dose of phosphorus in two or three dressings • Protect against bird damage of seed by netting or taking colour ribbons Tips for Growing Nursery in AP/ Telangana • Plough the soil thoroughly 3 to 4 times and level it perfectly. Make channels for irrigation water and drainage. • For 5 cents of nursery bed apply 2kg. Nitrogen(1kg at the time of broadcasting the seed and another after 12 to 14 days) 1kg P O and 1kg Potash. In cold prone 2 5 areas apply double dose • Broadcast the sprouted seed 5kg /cent of soil. • Allow it to dry for some time and give slight irrigation at first leaf stage. • If zinc deficiency is noticed spray 2g ZnSO4 dissolved in 1 liter of water. In case of dry nursery if Iron deficiency is noticed spray 2% Ferrous sulphate solution. • Apply Carbofuran 3G granules 10 days after broadcasting the seed per cent of nursery @160g or Monocrotophos 1.6ml or Cloripyriphos 2.0 ml per liter of wate. Apply Carbofuran 3g granules @160g per cent of nursery week days before uprooting the nursery. • For 5 cents of nursery bed apply 2kg. Nitrogen (1 kg at the time of broadcasting the seed and another after 12 to 14 days) 1kg P2O5 and 1kg Potash. In cold prone areas apply double dose. • Broadcast the sprouted seed 5kg /cent of soil. Seeds should be free from weed seeds • Allow it to dry for some time and give
Sufﬁcient amount of nutrients should be supplied to the crop right from transplanting to harvesting as it helps in better crop growth ﬁnally giving better yields. Ensure soil fer tility tests are done to your ﬁeld and apply the nutrients accordingly recommended by the soil health report .
• 3-4 tons of FYM should be applied to the ﬁeld at the time of ploughing
• Both oversupply and under supply of nutrients to the crop is a threat.
• Oversupply of nutrients results to increased susceptibility of the crop to pests, lodging, etc.
· Basal fer tilization with 0.5 kg of `N’; 0.5 kg of `P’ and 0.5 Kg of ‘K’ per every 100 sq m is required to get robust seedlings, followed by another 0.5 kg `N’ at 12 days after sowing.
· Spray ZnSO4 @ 2.0 g /l for correction of Zinc deﬁciency if deﬁciency is observed.
EIS,Package of Practices,Nutrient Management
- Sudden foul smell of hydrogen sulphide resembling that of rotten eggs emits from soil
- A black mark will be seen on the roots if plant is pulled out and examined, which turn to reddish brown when exposed to air.
- The crop starts wilting, older leaves become yellow and dry out prematurely
- Parched appearance of field will be observed.
- Application of nitrogenous fertilizer through neutral fertilizers like Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN)
- Draining of soil frequently will reduce the sulphide injury.
• Sudden foul smell of hydrogen sulphide resembling that of rotten eggs emits from soil
• A black mark will be seen on the roots if plant is pulled out and examined, which turn to reddish brown when exposed to air.
• The crop star ts wilting, older leaves become yellow and dry out prematurely
• Parched appearance of ﬁeld will be observed.
• Application of nitrogenous fer tilizer through neutral fer tilizers like Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN)
EIS,Package of Practices,Nutrient Management