|Package of Practices
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Symptoms of Sheath Rot
1. Symptoms usually develop as lesions on sheaths of lower leaves near the water line when plants are in the late tillering or early internode elongation stage of growth (approximately 10 – 15 days after flooding).
2. These lesions usually develop just below the leaf collar as oval-to-elliptical, green-gray, water-soaked spots about ¼ inch wide and ½ to 1¼ inch long.
3. Disease development progresses very rapidly in the early heading and grain filling growth stages during periods of frequent rainfall and overcast skies.
4. As plants senesce from maturity, lesions will dry and become grayish-white to tan with brownish borders.
5. Sclerotia, initially white but turning dark brown at maturity, are produced superficially on or near the lesions.
Local name: Kankara tegulu
Causal organism: Microbacterium sp.
1. The symptoms of red stripe appeared on leaf blades or upper parts of leaf sheaths at the heading stage in the paddy fields.
2. A typical lesion consisted of an orange to reddish-brown spot with a long white halo that ran lengthwise from the spot to the leaf tip .
3. In the very early stages of disease development, pin-point sized, transparent to dark green spots were scattered on the surface of the leaf blade
4. Such dots were seen more clearly by holding the leaves up against a light source. Lesions had a water-soaked margin in early morning or in humid conditions.
5. They enlarged and turned yellow, and yellow to orange stripes soon formed. Stripes were most often accompanied by a whitish halo along the leaf vein. Typical lesions of red stripe have a central area that becomes sunken and necrotic.
Control of Red stripe
1. Spraying with carbendazim 50 WP @ 1.0g per litre of water immediately after noticing the disease in the field.
Control of stem rot
The follwoing measures can be adopted for controlling Stem rot in Rice:
- Summer ploughing
- Seed treatment
- Optimum spacing
- Avoiding stagnation of irrigation water.
- Timely control of insect pests like stem borer and brown plant hopper
- Spraying with validamycin @ 2.0ml or hexaconazole @ 2.0ml or propiconazole @ 1.0ml or benomyl 1.0g or carbendazim 1.0g per litre of water.
- Thorough coverage of the crop canopy with spray fluid.
Local name : Kaandam kullu tegulu
Causal organism: Sclerotium oryzae
The symptoms of Stem rot are:
1. The first symptom appears as small, black irregular lesions on the outer leaf sheath near the waterline.
2. The fungus penetrates the inner leaf sheath resulting the basal portion of the stem to rot.
3. Numerous black, round shining bodies (sclerotia) are formed on the affected sheaths stems, and also in the hollow internodes at maturity.
4. Typical symptoms are apparent in this disease affected area as the crop approaches maturity the plants lose, turn yellow and finally die.
Bacterial Leaf Blight
Local Name: Aaku yendu thegulu
Causal organism: Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae,
Symptoms of Bacterial Leaf Blight
1. Bacterial leaf blight is a typical vascular disease and has three distinct phases of symptoms. viz., leaf blight phase, kresek phase and pale yellow leaf phase.
2. Symptoms of the disease appear from the tip or edges of leaves as yellow, water soaked, undulate lesions, parallel to' the veins, later turning to straw yellow.
3. Often amber coloured bead-like bacterial exudates are present on lesions. In systemic infection, seedlings wilt and die.
4. Grains get partially filled or become chaffy. Rain splashes and wind aid in dissemination of the bacterium. Field to field irrigation also aids in the spread of the pathogen (Muralidharan and Venkata Rao 1979).
Control of Bacterial Leaf Blight:
The control measures for Bacterial Leaf Blight are:
1. Growing resistant varieties
2. Split application of nitrogen fertilizer
Control of Rice Blast :
The control measures of Rice Blast are as follows:
- Growing resistant varieties
- Seed treatment
- Keeping field bunds weed free
- Avoiding excess nitrogen application
- Spraying with either tricyclazole 75WP @ 0.6g or isoprothiolane 40EC @ 1.5ml per litre of water.
There are two types of Rice blast
1. Leaf blast
2. Neck blast
Local name : Aggi tegulu
Symptoms of Leaf blast
1. The symptoms start with the appearance of small whitish, greyish or bluish spots of 1-3 mm diameter on the leaf blades.
2. The spots developed in the susceptible cultivars enlarge quickly under moist conditions and the spots become elliptical or ‘eye shaped’ with more or less pointed ends on the leaves.
3. The centre of the spots developed in the usually grey or whitish and the margin is brown or reddish brown.
4. Fully developed spots on the susceptible cultivars may be 1-1.5 cm long and 0.3- 0.5 cm broad.
Symptoms of Neck blast
1. The neck blast also called as neck rot or rotten neck.
2. The neck rot or rotten neck blast phase is caused by infection of the neck node by the fungus Pyricularia oryzae.
3. Rotten neck symptoms appear at the base of the panicle starting at the node.
4. The infected tissue turns dark brown to black and shrivel causing the stem to break.
5. Panicles usually turn straw colored and are either completely or partially blacked . Often they break and the heads fall to the ground.
Control of Sheath blight:
The control measures of Sheath Blight include:
a. Summer ploughing
b. Seed treatment
c. Optimum spacing
d. Clean cultivation and timely weed control
e. Avoiding excess nitrogen application
f. Spraying with hexaconazole @ 2.0ml or validamycin @ 2.0ml or propiconazole @ 1.0ml per litre of water.
g. Thorough coverage of the spray chemical
Local name : Poda Thegulu
Causal organisam : Rhizoctonia solani
1. Sheath blight disease usually appears in the later growth stages of the plant.
2. Initial symptoms usually develop as lesions on sheaths of lower leaves near the water line when plants are in the late tillering or early internode elongation stage (approximately 10 – 15 days after flooding) varies from place to place.
3. These lesions usually develop just below the leaf collar as oval-to-elliptical, green-gray, water-soaked spots about ¼ inch wide and ½ to 1 ¼ inch long.
4. Disease development progresses very rapidly in the early heading and grain filling stages during periods of frequent rainfall and overcast skies.
5. As plants senesce from maturity, lesions will dry and become grayish-white to tan with brownish borders.
6. Sclerotia, initially white turning dark brown at maturity, are produced superficially on or near the lesions. Sclerotia are loosely attached and easily dislodge from the plant.
Major rice diseases of Andhra Pradesh
Major rice diseases of Andhra Pradesh are
1. Sheath blight
4. Stem rot
5. Red stripe
6. Sheath rot
7. False smut