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1. Upland tillage is undertaken in locations where crops are grown in aerobic soil conditions. This means that the soils are non-puddled soils and there is no freestanding water in the fields. Soil moisture levels are critical when ploughing in an upland-farming situation.
2. If the soil is too dry it will not till easily, the power requirement will increase and in clay soils large clods may be formed. In clay soils these large clods may cause problems when trying to decrease ped size to create a seedbed.
3. If the soil is ploughed very wet, near soil saturation, smearing and soil sealing can become problems during seedbed preparation.
4. Animal powered systems use a moldboard plough, while 2-wheel and 4-wheel tractor powered systems use one-way disc, offset disc and tined implements.
5. These systems often require more tillage operations to control weeds. In low land systems weeds are often controlled by incorporation while in upland systems weeds are best cut and left on the surface to die. In these systems water erosion can be a problem and ploughing on the contour is recommended