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  • The rice-wheat production system has played an important role in the food security and has remained its cornerstone for rural development and natural resource conservation. 
  • But, now evidences of second generation problems have started appearing such as declining productivity, plateauing of crop productivity, declining soil organic matter, receding ground water table, diminishing farm profitability etc., which are mainly attributed to intensive conventional production systems.
  • Rice is the world’s most important staple food crop. 
  • Conventional flooded rice cultivation in Asia provides more than 75% of the world’s rice supply for half the earth’s main staple food.  
  • However, rice production consumes about 30% of all freshwater used worldwide. 
  • In Asia, flood-irrigated rice consumes more than 45% of total freshwater used. 
  • By 2025, 15 out of 75 million hectare of Asia’s flood-irrigated rice crop will experience water shortage. 
  • Rice production is challenged by the increasing shortage of water resource in the world and by the limitation of water resource in the seasonal drought areas. 
  • Alternatives to the conventional flooded rice cultivation need to developed world wide to reduce water consumption and produce more rice with less water. 
  • The yield level of a crop reflects many facets of crop growth including environmental factors such as rainfall, temperature, sunlight and humidity and cultural factors such as planting date, row spacing, cultivar selection and tillage method. 
  • As a result, the interpretation of a relationship is difficult; however response is likely at low yields at high soil test values.  
  • Therefore it is very pertinent to highlight the present fertility status of rice soils of India in terms of its constraints.

File Courtesy: 
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security
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