Soil and management related constraints
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Soil and management related constraints in rice production in India can be delineated in following points:
- Increasing area under soil salinization (8-10 M ha) (salt affected) - major portion is cropped to rice,
- About 15 M.ha of rice soils are acidic associated with toxicity of Fe, Al, Mn, As, deficiency of K, Ca, Mg, B, Si, and P fixation,
- About 8.0 M.ha of rice area is deficient in zinc (Zn)
- Nearly 50 and 80% of Indian soils are responsive (low to medium) to potassium and phosphorous, respectively,
- Blanket fertilizer management/recommendation over large domains,
- Nutrient depletion (N, K, S) and loss of soil organic matter in intensive cropping systems,
- About 3.0 M ha in northwestern states under rice-wheat cropping system affected by Mn deficiency
- Nutrient problems of deficiency of N, P, K, Zn, Fe, S, Ca, B, and toxicity of Fe, Al, H2 S, As, Se and
- Overall stagnation or deceleration of growth in productivity of crops and cropping systems
- Wet season rice followed by dry season fallow causes considerable buildup of nitrate in soil profiles.
- This NO3 gets lost from the soil when fields are reflodded and puddled for planting rice in the following wet season
- Data indicate that iron (Fe) content of ground water in all the districts is high due to high content of Fe-bearing minerals in soils, and such ground water is not suitable for irrigation unless properly managed Continuous use of such irrigation water causes Fe-toxicity and other nutrient imbalances in crop plants.
- It also greatly reduces P-availability in the soil.
- Precipitation of iron in surface and subsurface layers may clog the pores of the soils.
- As a result, drainage is impeded and crop plants suffer from inadequate O2 supply in the root zone.
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security