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Soil affected due to water erosion

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  • About 149 M.ha is affected due to water erosion, 13.5 M.ha by wind erosion, 14.0 M.ha by chemical degradation and about 12 M.ha by physical degradation (Yadav, 2007). 
  • Loss of fertile top soil by water erosion  is about 5000 M.tons per year of which about 29% is lost into sea, 10% deposited in reservoirs, 59% is deposited as alluvium.
  • About 3.5% of the total land area is affected by water logging and 18.2 M.ha are wastelands not suitable for agricultural production.
  • Chemical degradation of the soil due to human intervention is around 13.6 M. ha of which salinization accounts for 10.1 M.ha, and nutrient and organic carbon loss in 3.7 m.ha.
  • Salinity and alkalinity are soil problems associated with low rainfall and high evaporative demand, improper drainage and excessive flooding causing significant loss to crop and soil productivity 
  • More than 90% of NEH region is acidic of varying degrees which restrict the crop choice. Fertilizer use in the region and its efficiency are poor.
  • Poor structural stability of the fine textured clay soils (Vertisols) renders agricultural practices very difficult.
  • Unscientific crop intensification with imbalanced use of fertilizers has led to much management related nutrient problems like decline in productivity and sustainability,  
  • Extensive use of ground water through tube wells has resulted in significant lowering of water table which could result in serious productivity declines during low rainfall years. 
File Courtesy: 
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security
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