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Rhizoctonia solani (Sexual stage : Thanetophorus cucumeris).
The fungus produces usually long cells of septate mycelium which are hyaline when young, yellowish brown when old. It produces large number of globoses sclerotia, which are initially white, later turn to brown or purplish brown.
Mode of spread and survival of Sheath Blight of Rice: The pathogen can survive as sclerotia or mycelium in dry soil for about 20 months but for 5-8 months in moist soil. It infects more than 188 crop species in 32 families. Sclerotia spread through irrigation water.
Favourable conditions: High relative humidity (96-97 per cent), high temperature (30-32OC), closer planting and heavy doses of nitrogenous fertilizers.
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur