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1. The infected seeds are the most common source of primary infection. The conidia present on infected grain and mycelium in the infected tissue may viable for 2 to 3 years.
2. The fungus may survive in the soil for 28 months at 30OC and 5 months at 35OC. Airborne conidia infect the plants both in nursery and in main field.
3. Maximum flight of conidia take place at a wind velocity of 4.0 - 8.8 hr. Minimum temperature of 27 -28OC, Relative humidity of 90-99% and rainfall of 0.4 -14.4 mm favored the dispersal of the conidia to maximum extent.
4. The fungus also survives on collateral hosts like Leersia hexandra, Arundo donux, and Echinochlora colonum.
5. Favourable Conditions: Temperature of 25-30OC with relative humidity above 80 per cent are highly favourable. Excess of nitrogen aggravates the disease incidence.
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur