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Land preparation typically involves ploughing, harrowing, and levelling the ﬁeld to make it suitable for crop establishment. Plough the ﬁeld upto 12-15 cm deep so that the weeds and the stubbles get incorporated in the soil and get decomposed. • Ploughing should be done 3-4 weeks prior to sowing. Draft animals, such as oxen, 2-wheel tractors or 4-wheel tractors can all be used ploughing the land effectively. • After ploughing, harrowing should be done twice, with one week gap between the two. First harrowing should be done after 1 week of ploughing. The second harrowing should be done across the ﬁrst harrowing. • The land should be submerged in 2-5 cm of standing water so that pudding is done and decomposition of organic matter occurs soon. Bunds should be prepared and cleaned thoroughly as the harbour pests and diseases. • Bunds should be compacted to prevent seepage, and properly maintained at 15 cm high x 20 cm wide to prevent rat burrowing. The initial soil tillage can also be performed with a rotavator instead of a plough.