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1. Insects need oxygen for respiration. With carbon dioxide fumigation, much of the oxygen in the storage bin is replaced by carbon dioxide that suffocates, dehydrates and also produces toxic chemicals in the blood of the insects.
2. To be effective, elevated carbon dioxide levels must be maintained until all insects die.
3. The required exposure time depends on the percentage of carbon dioxide and the temperature of the grain. The cost of CO2 fumigation is high.