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Tapuy - A Filipino Ceremonial Wine

The tapuy rice wine is considered as the ceremonial wine served during special occasions (such as weddings) and large celebrations like a bountiful harvest festival. Since the natives can produce tapuy rice wine inside their homes, the local wine is also imbibed by the locals on a daily basis.Tapuy is a Filipino rice wine originated in Batad (a place in the Banaue Rice Terraces), Ifugao, Philippines. This native wine from fermented rice is also produced in the Cordillera Province; particularly in Apayao, Benguet, Kalinga, and Mountain Province. Other names for tapuy in these parts are: tapey or bayah . The native brew is prepared locally and produced from fermented rice. There are 2 main ingredients: glutinous rice and bubod (starter culture).

Glutinous Rice Best for Producing Tapuy:
The best rice variety for producing tapuy is the waxy or glutinous rice. The round and short grains of glutinous rice is ideal for rice wine making.
The next important ingredient is the starter culture, locally known as ‘bubod’. It is produced in Quezon, Ifugao, and Benguet. ‘Bubod’ is made from rice flour, ginger extract, and old ‘bubod’, which is also referred to as starter culture. It contains microorganisms that convert the starch to sugar; and then the sugar to alcohol. These chemical processes are called saccharification and fermentation, respectively.
In the traditional method of rice wine production often used by the natives, the glutinous rice is cooked and set aside for about 3 days while inside a closed vessel to get through an aerobic fermentation. After 2 to 3 days, the cooked rice will be transferred to a jar made of clay and usually left behind to ferment for about a week. Studies show that 2-week fermentation period for rice is best. The PhilRice Tapuy is fermented for about 2 months.
Red Wine from Rice
Red rice wine is made from colored or pigmented rice; such as the black and the red rice variety. The red color of the rice is caused by anthocyanins, which are known good antioxidants. The anthocyanins found in red rice wine are similar to red wines made from grapes and blueberries. Antioxidants help protect the body cells from toxins that cause cancer and other cardiovascular diseases.
PhilRice had tested four colored rice varieties cultivated in the Cordillera and Palawan provinces as ingredients for the red rice wine production in the Philippines
Main Ingredients for Tapuy Rice Wine
The main ingredients for tapuy rice wine are the glutinous rice (colored or white) and starter culture (locally called ‘bubod’). About 10 grams of bubod is needed for 1 kilogram of rice.
Steps in making Tapuy :
Step 1 :
The traditional process of tapuy rice wine making usually starts with separating the chaffs from the rice grains.
Step 2 :
The milling of rice is normally done through pounding the rice using large mortar and pestle.
Step 3 :
The broken rice hull is separated from rice grains through winnowing. Placed in a shallow bamboo tray, rice is repeatedly thrown upwards to sift and blow away the light-weight hull. This is done carefully and by someone with a steady grip. The wind should be blowing away to protect the eyes.
Step 4 :
The rice is roasted to take out the aroma and get the desired color for the wine.
Step 5 :
The roasted rice is washed and steeped overnight. It is washed again and drained well before adding water for cooking or steaming. For every 1 cup of rice, 1 and 1/2 cup of water is added. Boil over medium-high heat; then simmer over low heat to cook without burning.
According to a study about tapuy, the red and waxy rice variety is preferred. To optimize the growth of microorganisms in the bubod, rice and water ratio should be 1:3 (1 cup rice to 3 cups of water). The cooking or steaming process should be extended from 45 to 60 minutes.
Step 6 :
The cooked rice needs cooling down. Spread the rice on a dry and clean shallow tray or dish.
Step 7 :
While cooling the cooked rice, crush the bubod or starter culture with a fork. The bubod can also be pulverized using mortar and pestle until it reaches powder form. Sift the crushed bubod through a strainer.
Step 8 :
Sprinkle the powdered bubod all over the surface of cooked rice
Step 9 :
Mix the cooked rice and bubod powder thoroughly.
Step 10 :
Pour rice and bubod mixture into a plastic bag inside a container with cover. Or, wrap the mixture in the wilted banana leaf and place inside a pot with lid. The idea is to keep the air humid during fermentation.
Step 11 :
Cover or seal the rice and bubod mixture and set aside in a cool, dry, and dark place to ferment for 2 to 3 days. The freshly brewed wine from rice can be served right after harvest. This is the stage when tapuy rice wine tastes sweet (or moderately sweet) but with biting alcohol flavor.
For special occasions like a dinner party, serving rice wine stored for at least 1 month is recommended.
When stored longer, the taste of tapuy rice wine would be full-bodied and got a certain strength and flavor that lingers in the mouth.
If a higher alcohol content is desired, lengthen the storage time from 6 months to up to 1 year. The aged tapuy rice wine could taste - and kick - like brandy.
Serve tapuy rice wine warm or cold. Pour it in a simple cup or a fancy goblet. Tapuy is also used to mix cocktail drinks.
As an exotic culinary ingredient, tapuy gives authentic taste to foods when added while cooking or marinating.

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Rice Residue Management for Improving Soil Quality


Crop residues are good sources of plant nutrients and are important components for the stability of agricultural ecosystems. About 400 million tons of crop residues are produced in India alone. In areas where mechanical harvesting is practiced, a large quantity of crop residues are left in the field, which can be recycled for nutrient supply. About 25% of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), 50% of sulfur (S), and 75% of potassium (K) uptake by cereal crops are retained in crop residues, making them valuable nutrient sources. Both rice and wheat are exhaustive feeders, and the double cropping system is heavily depleting the soil of its nutrient content. A rice-wheat sequence that yields 7 tons per ha of rice and 4 tons per ha of wheat removes more than 300 kg N, 30 kg P, and 300 kg K per ha from the soil. If crop residues could be better managed, this would directly improve crop yields by increasing soil nutrient availability, decreasing erosion, improving soil structure and increasing soil water holding capacity as a consequence of improving soil organic matter content (Yadvinder Singh et al., 2005). Although during the last three decades fertilization practices have played a dominant role in crop production system, crop residues, the harvest remnants of previous crop, still play an essential role in nutrient cycling. Incorporation of crop residues alters the soil environment, which in turn influences the microbial population and activity in soil and subsequent nutrient transformations. Through this chain of events management of crop residues regulates the efficiency with which fertilizers, water and other reserves are used in a cropping system.   

Farming activities in many parts of the world have resulted in large declines in soil organic matter (SOM) and concomitant degradation of soil physical and chemical properties, resulting in reduced crop yields and quality (Dalal and Mayer, 1986). To a large extent, this has occurred through the inappropriate management of crop residues, fertilizers and tillage. World population growth, demands for food security, limited land resources and global climate change signal the need for farming systems that are sustainable and reverse the decline in SOM to levels adequate for stable soil structure and better water and nutrient retention. The use of crop residues, the manipulation of their quality and inorganic inputs play a key role in sequestering carbon and building up soil fertility.

Rice residue management options

There exist several options for managing crop residues. These include being removed from the field, left on the soil surface, incorporated into the soil, burned in situ, composted or used as mulch for succeeding crops. Throughout the tropics there is little recycling of crop residues in the field – these are either harvested for fuel, animal feed or bedding or are burned in the field. Crop residues removed from the field can also be used as bedding for animals, a substrate for composting, biogas generation or mushroom culture or as a raw material for industry. Local conditions determine the disposal method. Currently, in China, North Vietnam, India, Bangladesh and Nepal, complete removal of straw from the field is widespread in areas with hand harvest and great demand for straw as fodder, as fuel or for industrial purposes, causing large nutrient export from rice fields. Open field burning of rice straw is  predominant in areas with combine harvesting (northern India, Thailand, parts of China) or where manual threshing is done  in the field (Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, southern Vietnam). In many parts of the tropics, crop residues are burned in the field due to the ignorance of farmers about their value and lack of proper technology for in situ incorporation of residues. For example, in the intensive rice-wheat cropping system in the Indo-Gangetic plains of South Asia, crop residues, particularly rice straw are not used as animal feed and are disposed of by burning. This is a cost effective method of straw disposal and helps to reduce pest and disease populations resident in the straw biomass, but it also causes pollution by releasing CO2, N2O, NH3 and particulate leading to global warming and health concerns (Kirkby, 1999). It also reduces the number and activity of soil microbes. The magnitude of C and nutrient loss during burning is influenced by the quantity of residue burned and the intensity of the fire. Complete burning of rice straw at 470 °C in muffle furnace resulted in 100, 20, 20 and 80% losses of N, P, K and S, respectively (Sharma and Mishra, 2001).

Decomposition of rice residues                                                                    

Decaying of crop residues starts as soon as the residues come into contact with the soil. The process of decomposition is controlled by the interaction of three components: the soil organisms or biological processes, the quality of crop residues, and the physical and chemical environment. The combination of these components determines not only the rate of decomposition of crop residues but also the end product of the decomposition process. Burying of rice straw in soil has been reported to accelerate the decomposition in comparison with placing the straw on the soil surface (Kumar and Goh, 2000). Residues rich in lignin and polyphenol contents experience the lowest decay. Decomposition of crop residues occurs at a rapid rate under the warm and humid conditions of the tropics. Factors that control C decomposition also affect the N mineralization from crop residues. Decomposition of poor-quality residues with low N contents, high C:N ratios and high lignin and polyphenol contents generally results in microbial immobilization of soil and fertilizer N. A large number of organic compounds, particularly phenolic acid and acetic acid are released during the decomposition of crop residues under anaerobic conditions. The accumulation of these organic compounds can adversely affect the seedling growth.

Residue management effects on soil properties

In recent years, the concept of soil quality has been suggested as a tool for assessing the long-term sustainability of agricultural practices at local, regional, national and international levels. Crop residue management is known to affect either directly or indirectly most of the soil quality indicators-chemical, physical and biological. It is perceived that soil quality is improved by the adoption of sound crop residue management practices (Karlen et al., 1994). Long-term application of crop residues increased the organic matter, total N content and availability of several nutrients (though to a small extent) in soils. The rate of increase in soil organic matter is low due to high turnover rates of C under tropical conditions. Mineralization and immobilization of N occur simultaneously in the soil. The residue quality and availability of soil N are important determinants of N mineralization-immobilization occurring during residue decomposition. Mineralization of organic N depends on the N requirements of the soil microbial population, the biochemical composition of the decomposing crop residue and several soil and environmental factors. Crop residue management can affect N immobilization and stabilization processes important to efficient utilization of N from fertilizers, crop residues and soil organic matter availability of nutrients from crop residues depends to a great extent on mineralization of nutrients from the crop residues in relation to crop demand. The application of crop residues can cause short-term immobilization of both P and S, particularly in aerobic soils. Only a small fraction (5%) of the residue P is available to the plants in the first year, and a major fraction is immobilized as microbial biomass (Stevenson, 1986). Crop residues contain large amounts of K, which upon incorporation increased K availability in soil and helped to reduce K depletion from non-exchangeable K fraction of soil (Chatterjee and Mondal, 1996). Residue management practices affect soil physical properties such as soil moisture content, temperature, aggregate formation, bulk density, soil porosity and hydraulic conductivity. Increasing amounts of rice residues on the soil surface reduce evaporation rates and increased duration of first-stage drying. Thus, residue-covered soils tend to have greater soil moisture content than bare soil except after extended drought. The effect of residues on soil physical properties is dependent on soil type, tillage, soil moisture conditions, duration of study, and cropping system followed. Microbial bioniass, a small (1-5% by weight) but active fraction of soil organic matter, is of particular concern in soil fertility considerations because it is more susceptible to management practices than the bulk organic matter (Janzen, 1987). Although SMB values are only a small portion of total C and N in soils, this living portion of soil contains a substantial amount of nutrients needed for crop growth. The amount of microbial biomass and microbial activity depends on the supply of organic substrates in soil. Therefore, regular addition of a sufficient amount of organic materials such as crop residue is important in the maintenance of microbial biomass and improvement of soil fertility.

In South Asia, rice crop occupies a major share of total arable land. The recycling of its residues has the great potential to return a considerable amount of plant nutrients to the soil in the rice based crop production systems. Particularly the rice-wheat cropping system is the most intensive production system in the country. The yield stagnation consequent upon the declining soil organic carbon is a major threat to this system. Therefore it is a great challenge to the agriculturists to manage rice residues effectively and efficiently for enhancing sequestration of carbon and maintaining the sustainability of production. The application of current knowledge on residue management will help reduce the adverse effects of crop residues on crop yields. Hence, it may be concluded that nutrient cycling through crop residues holds great promise in securing a high level of crop productivity as a result of improved soil quality.


Chatterjee, B. N. and Mondal, S. S., 1996. Potassium nutrition under intensive cropping. J. Pot. Res. 12: 358-364.

Dalal, R.C. and Mayer, R.J., 1986. Long-term trends in fertility of soils under continuous cultivation and cereal cropping in southern Queens land. I. Overall changes in soil properties and trends in winter cereal yields. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 24: 265–279.

Janzen, H. H., 1987. Soil organic matter characteristic after long-term cropping in various spring wheat rotations. Can. J. Soil Sci. 67: 845-856.

Karlen, D. L., Wollenhaupt, N. C., Erbach, D. C., Berry, E. C., Swan, J. B., Eash, N. S. and Jordahl, J. L., 1994. Crop residues effect on soil quality following 10 years of no-till corn. Soil Tillage Res. 31: 149-167.

Kirkby, C.A., 1999. Survey of current rice stubble management practices for identification of research needs and future policy. RIRDC Project No. CSL-5A.

Kumar, K. and Goh, K. M., 2000. Crop residues and management practices: effects on soil quality, soil nitrogen dynamics, crop yield and nitrogen recovery. Adv. Agron. 68: 269-407.

Sharma, P.K., and Mishra, B., 2001. Effect of burning rice and wheat crop residues: Loss of N, P. K and S from soil and changes in nutrient availability. J. Indian Soc. Soil. Sci., 49:425-429.

Stevenson, F. J., 1986. Cycles of soil: Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Micronutrients. John Wiley and Sons. New York.

Yadvinder Singh, Bijay Singh and Timsina, J., 2005. Crop residue management for nutrient cycling and improving soil productivity in rice based cropping system in the tropics. Adv. Agron. 85: 269-407

*Corresponding Author: Email -

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Mohammad Shahid*, Rahul Tripathi, Sangita Mohanty, Kasturi Thilagam and A. K. Nayak, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack - 753006, Orissa

Things You May Not Have Known About Rice

Rice vs Other Grains

Cereal yields are generally higher in temperate areas than in tropical countries.

Rice has the highest extraction rate of any cereal, meaning when considering the fraction of each grain utilized to as food, rice produces more energy per hectare than any other cereal.

Total food protein per production hectare for rice is second only to wheat.  However, when the superior quality of rice protein is considered, the yield per hectare of utilizable protein is actually higher for rice than for wheat.

Four Major Rice Ecosystems

Irrigated Rice: Spend more to make more. Irrigated rice consists of about 55% of global rice area and about 75% of global rice production - thanks to typically higher yields. However, the higher yields typically mean more purchased input costs. Irrigated rice areas are mostly concentrated in humid and sub humid subtropics and humid tropics. 

Rainfed Lowland Rice: Accounts for about 25% of global rice area and about 17% of global rice production. Rainfed rice is found in South and Southeast Asia. Rice is transplanted or direct-seeded into puddled soil on level to slight sloping, bunded (diked) fields that are flooded for at least part of the cropping season – leaving the crop vulnerable to a lack of water control. Farmers grow traditional, photoperiod-sensitive varieties and rely more on labor than purchasing inputs.

Upland Rice: Consists of about 13% of global rice area and about 4% of global rice production, due to extremely low yields. Upland rice is grown without standing water. Despite the low yields this is the dominant rice culture in parts of Latin America and West Africa.

Flood-Prone Rice: Accounts for about 9% of global rice area and about 4% of world production, due to low yields as a result of problem soils and unpredictable droughts and floods.  This includes both deep-water rice and floating rice. About 90% is farmed in South and Southeast Asia  with the remaining 10% farmed in parts of West Africa and South America.

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Rice Receipe Of Chhattisgarh

1. The State of Chhattisgarh is known as rice bowl of India and follows a rich tradition of food culture .

2. The Food preparation falls in different categories. Most of the traditional and tribe foods are made by rice and rice flour , curd(number of veg kadis) and variety of leaves like lal bhaji,chech bhaji ,kohda , bohar bhaji. Badi and Bijori are optional food categories also Gulgula ,pidiya ,dhoodh fara,balooshahi ,khurmi falls in sweet categories.

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IGKV, Raipur



Vadi-Biyyam is another traditional custom practiced in mostly Telangana region. At least once in a five years the parents invite their married daughters and give them gifts with traditional turmeric rice. They usually do this along with some other important days like birthdays or marriage days.

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Rice and cultural heritage in Andhra Pradesh

Rice and cultural heritage in Andhra Pradesh: 

Rice has a great cultural heritage.

Many preparations viz., payasam, paravannam, ondrallu, arshalu, laddulu etc., are prepared and offered to the God at the time of worshipping.

Rice is one among Navadhanyalu at the time of construction of houses (Bhoomipooja) and navagraha pooja.

Rice is used as THALAMBRALU and AKSHANTHALU while mixing in turmeric powder and also used as VADIBIYYAM.

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Rice and cultural heritage in Rajasthan

Rice and cultural heritage in Rajasthan

Rice is a central part of many cultures. The relationship between people and rice has inspired stories, songs and paintings. It is used in festivals and religious ceremonies and considered divine by many emperors and kings in ancient times. As a matter of fact rice has shaped the culture and dietary habits of its consumers.

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Status Paper on Rajasthan

Rice for worshiping God

Rice for worshipping God: 

Rice   has a great cultural heritage. Many preparations viz., payasam, paravannam, ondrallu,

arshalu, laddulu etc., are prepared and offered to the God at the time of worshipping.


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google images
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