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28
Jan

Distribution of problem soils in India cropped to rice

While the diversity in agro ecological environment in the country provide opportunities for growing  numerous commercially viable cropping and farming systems towards a robust agriculture, efficient and sustainable management of natural resources especially soil and water for enhanced soil productivity is vital for over all economy of the country.  Although soil productivity depends largely on a number of its diverse physico - chemical and biological characteristics, the ultimate output is governed by the precise agronomic operations, matching production systems with land capability, efficient management of external inputs like seed, water, nutrient etc., and maintaining a synergy between conservation and exploitation of resources such as soil and water.


Table : Distribution of problem soils in India cropped to rice

Soils

Area(M.ha)

States

Sodic

2.5-3.0

Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu

Inland Saline

2.4

Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan,

Potential

(15.0)

Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh,

Coastal saline

2.5-3.0

West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh,  Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra

Acid soils

49.0
(15.0)

North East Hills, West Bengal, Orissa, North Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Bihar

Acid saline

0.5-1.0

Kerala, West Bengal

Nutrient problems

Deficiency

N,P,Zn,Fe,S,K,Ca,Mn

Toxicity

Fe,H2S,Al, As,Se

 

28
Jan

Soil and management related constraints

Soil and management related constraints in rice production in India can be delineated in following points:

  • Increasing area under soil salinization (8-10 M ha) (salt affected) - major portion is cropped to rice,
  • About 15 M.ha of rice soils are acidic associated with toxicity of Fe, Al, Mn, As, deficiency of K, Ca, Mg, B, Si, and P fixation,
  • About  8.0 M.ha of rice area is deficient in zinc (Zn)
  • Nearly 50 and 80% of Indian soils are responsive (low to medium) to potassium and phosphorous, respectively,
  • Blanket fertilizer management/recommendation over large domains,
  • Nutrient depletion (N, K, S) and loss of soil organic matter in intensive cropping systems,
  • About 3.0 M ha in northwestern states under rice-wheat cropping system affected by Mn deficiency
  • Nutrient problems of deficiency of N, P, K, Zn, Fe, S, Ca, B, and toxicity of Fe, Al, H2 S, As, Se and
  • Overall stagnation or deceleration of growth in productivity of crops and cropping systems    
  • Wet season rice followed by dry season fallow causes considerable buildup of nitrate in soil profiles.
  • This NO3 gets lost from the soil when fields are reflodded  and puddled for planting rice in the following wet season
  • Data indicate that iron (Fe) content of ground water in all the districts is high due to high content of Fe-bearing minerals in soils, and such ground water is not suitable for irrigation unless properly managed Continuous use of such irrigation water causes Fe-toxicity and other nutrient imbalances in crop plants. 
  • It also greatly reduces P-availability in the soil.  
  • Precipitation of iron in surface and subsurface layers may clog the pores of the soils. 
  • As a result, drainage is impeded and crop plants suffer from inadequate O2 supply in the root zone.

File Courtesy: 
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security
28
Jan

Loss of soil organic carbon (SOC)

  •  In India SOC content is most of the soils range from 0.2 to 0.5% (2-5 g/kg soil) which works out to 21 and 156 billion tons up to 30 and 150 cm soil depth, respectively while total soil inorganic C pool (SIC) is about 196 billion tons. 
  • Loss of SOC is alarming due increasing atmospheric temperature and changing rainfall pattern.
  • Extensive mining of soil fertility, removal or burning of crop residues, soil degradation, inappropriate soil tillage and poor crop management, besides accelerated soil erosion (34 – 50 Tg C/yr) are the major reasons for loss of SOC and decline in crop productivity.
  • Technological options for soil C sequestrations in India include INM, green manuring, mulch farming, conservation tillage, residue recycling, and choice of cropping systems, balanced nutrient use with high nutrient use efficiency etc. 
  • Available information on loss of productivity due to soil degradation indicates that it is higher in red soils compared black and alluvial soils.
  • This warrants a knowledge based alleviation of soil problems, and management of soils and inputs keeping in view the resource quality, cropping system, and nutrient flows in the system for the overall sustainability. 
Table :9 Expected loss of productivity due to soil acidity

Soil pH

Degree of acidity

Loss in
Productivity (%)

>6.5

Nil

Nil

5.5-6.5

Slight

Upto 10

4.5-5.5

Moderate

10-25

3.5-4.5

Strong

25-50

<3.5

Extreme

>50
File Courtesy: 
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security
28
Jan

Soil affected due to water erosion

  • About 149 M.ha is affected due to water erosion, 13.5 M.ha by wind erosion, 14.0 M.ha by chemical degradation and about 12 M.ha by physical degradation (Yadav, 2007). 
  • Loss of fertile top soil by water erosion  is about 5000 M.tons per year of which about 29% is lost into sea, 10% deposited in reservoirs, 59% is deposited as alluvium.
  • About 3.5% of the total land area is affected by water logging and 18.2 M.ha are wastelands not suitable for agricultural production.
  • Chemical degradation of the soil due to human intervention is around 13.6 M. ha of which salinization accounts for 10.1 M.ha, and nutrient and organic carbon loss in 3.7 m.ha.
  • Salinity and alkalinity are soil problems associated with low rainfall and high evaporative demand, improper drainage and excessive flooding causing significant loss to crop and soil productivity 
  • More than 90% of NEH region is acidic of varying degrees which restrict the crop choice. Fertilizer use in the region and its efficiency are poor.
  • Poor structural stability of the fine textured clay soils (Vertisols) renders agricultural practices very difficult.
  • Unscientific crop intensification with imbalanced use of fertilizers has led to much management related nutrient problems like decline in productivity and sustainability,  
  • Extensive use of ground water through tube wells has resulted in significant lowering of water table which could result in serious productivity declines during low rainfall years. 
File Courtesy: 
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security
28
Jan

Estimated area (M ha) affected with Soil Physical Constraints

 Estimated area (M ha) affected with Soil Physical Constraints

Constraint

Area

Distribution

Crusting

10.25

Haryana, Punjab, West Bengal, Orissa, Gujarat

Hardening

21.57

Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar

Sub-surface hardpan

11.34

Maharashtra, Punjab, Bihar, Rajasthan, West Bengal, TN

Shallow depth

26.4

Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Kerala & Gujarat

High permeability

13.75

Rajasthan, West Bengal, Gujarat, Punjab& Tamil Nadu

Water logging

6.24

MP, Maharashtra, Punjab, Gujarat, Kerala, Orissa
File Courtesy: 
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security
28
Jan

Soil degradation and related production constraints

 The country accounts for >2 % of world soil resources with ample diversity in agro climatic condition for producing wide range of crops and vegetation. Several soil and management related constraints, however, hinder sustainable production of food and fodder. Physical degradation like soil erosion, soil crusting and compaction, chemical degradation like loss of organic matter, soil fertility, multi nutrient depletion and deficiencies, salt accumulation, pollution, etc., are some of the major soil and management-related problems reported which account for nearly 60% (188 M.ha) of the total land area (Table).

Soil group

Soil order

Land area
(M.ha)

Soil related constraints

Red and lateritic soils

Inceptisols,
Alfisols
Ultisols

172.2

Erosion by water, weak soil structure, nutrient imbalances, low OM, crusting, compaction, acidification, P fixation, loss of bases (Ca, K, Mg), nutrient (Fe, Al, Mn, H2S) toxicities

Black soils

Vertisols, Inceptisols

73.5

Massive structure, poor tilth, drought stress, water erosion, nutrient deficiencies, salt accumulation, 

Tarai Soils

Mollisols

8.0

Micronutrient deficiency,

Alluvial soils

Entisols, Inceptsols

58.4

Erosion, nutrient depletion, low OM, secondary salinization

Desert soils

Aridisols, Entisols

30.0

Drought stress, nutrient depletion, wind erosion, desertification, secondary salinization

 
Soil acidification is a natural soil-forming process accelerated by high rainfall, low evaporation, leaching of bases, and high oxidative biological activity that produces acid. The soil acidity plays major role in determining the nutrient availability to plants and in many instances by specific mineral stress problems. Production constraints are more intense on acid soils, which cover 30% of the world’s land area. Acid soil infertility is a syndrome of problems that affect plant growth in soils with low pH. This complex of problems arises from toxicities and deficiencies in acid soils are related to:
  1. Presence of the toxic concentration of Al and to a lesser extent Mn toxicity in many species,
  2. Deficiency of bases (Ca, Mg, K) and their poor retention power,
  3. High P fixation capacity of soil caused by highly active Al and Fe surfaces, rendering it unavailable to plants,
  4. Deficiency of Mo, especially for the growth of legumes,
  5. Reduction of soil biological activities,
  6. Impairment of N2-fixation by legumes caused by poor survival of microsymbiont and inhibition of nodulation, and
  7. Fe and Mn toxicities in submerged rice.

File Courtesy: 
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security
28
Jan

Distribution of micronutrients deficiencies across AEZ

Distribution of micronutrients deficiencies across AEZ indicate zinc deficiency to be about 40% in 1, 2, 5,15,16,18,and 19 zones; 40-50% in 9,11and 12 zones; 50-55% in 4, 7, and 13,  and 55% in the remaining zones.
Soils of indo-gangetic plains showed 55, 47 and 36% zinc deficiency in trans-northern, central and eastern parts of IGP, while boron deficiency is 8, 37 and 68% in these regions of IGP.
Boron deficiency varies from 2 % in AER 2; 24-48 % in highly calcareous soils of AEZ 2, 9, and 14 and is most wide spread (39-68 %) in red and lateritic soils of AEZ 6,13,16,17 and 19.
Deficiencies of Cu and Mn were found sporadic. 
The problem of Fe and Mn deficiency has emerged in Trans-northern IGP (zone 9) more so under rice-wheat cropping while most of the soils tested adequate in available iron.
Its deficiency in all AEZs as well as toxicity in some coastal, submontane and red-lateritic soils is quite common (Table)


Table 6:Extent of micronutrient deficiencies in different Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) of India

SNo


Agroecological zones


Soil type


Per cent deficiency


Zn


Cu


Mn


Fe


1


West.Himalayas


Hill


21.0


-


-


-


2


West.plains and Kutch  Peninsula


Desert & Saline


36.0


3.6


8.3


16.6


3


Deccan Plateau


Red and black


57.5


0.1


0.6


4.8


4


North.Plain and Central  Highlands


Alluvial derived


54.6


2.4


4.3


9.6


5


Central highlands and  Kathiawar Peninsula


Med. & deep black


64.2


0.7


1.9


3.0


6


Deccan Plateau


Sh.& med.   black


64.6


0.5


1.9


11.8


7


Deccan Plateau and Eastern Ghats


Red & med.   black


51.6


0.1


2.6


4.0


8


TN uplands and  Deccan Plateau


Red loam


57.0


17.6


8.4


19.9


9


Northern Plain


Alluvium desired


44.2


2.4


5.4


9.4


10


Central highlands & Deccan Plateau


Med. black clay

Red soil


76.5

58.0


0.3

1.0


0.7

0.6


6.1

2.5


11


Eastern Plateau (Chhatisgargh)


Red and yellow


44.5


0.7


0.1


0.9


12


Chhota Nagpur and Eastern Ghats


Red loam


49.1


0.9


1.8


0.5


13


Eastern Plain


Alluvium derived


54.7


1.6


17.6


19.6


14


Western Himalayas


Brown hill & forest


45.0


18.0


17.6


16.4


15


Assam and Bengal plains


Alluvium derived


34.0


0.5


0.2


0.3


16


Eastern Himalayas


Brown red and hill


20.0


0.4


1.0


0.6


17


Nort .h-Eastern hills (Purvanchal)


Alluvial derived


57.0


2.1


2.3


0.2


18


Eastern Coastal Plains


Alluvium derived


15.0


4.2


3.6


4.0


19


Western Ghats & Coastal Plains


Red, Lat. & Alluv..


36.0


24.0


1.0


0.8


20


A & D and Lakshadweep


Red loamy


20


-


-


-


All


All


All


45.4


3.3


4.5


8.3


File Courtesy: 
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security
28
Jan

Micronutrient status of Indian soils

Systematic survey and analysis of more than 2.50 lakh soil samples in 20 states by All India Coordinated Research Project indicated deficiency of zinc to the extent of 49%, 33% of B, 13, 7 and 4% of samples rating low in Fe, Mo, and Mn. 
These, in general, point to the micronutrient problems, the extent and severity could, however, vary across soil types, agro ecological zones and more importantly management and productivity of crops and cropping systems.
Coarse texture, calcareous, low organic carbon content, high pH and excessive leaching often accentuate zinc deficiency.
It is wide spread in the   calcareous soils of Bihar, Vertisols and Inceptisols of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Alfisols of Karnataka, swell-shrink soils of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, and Aridisols of Haryana resulting in low crop yields.
Zinc is a crucial component of the package of practices recommended for sodic soils reclamation.
Deficiencies of Fe, Mn and Cu are much less extensive than that to zinc.

Table 4: Total and available micronutrient contents in benchmark soils of India



Micronutrients


Total contents (mg/kg)


Available contents(mg/kg)


Range


Mean


Range


Mean


Zinc


20-97


55


0.12-2.80


0.54


Iron


13000-18000


33000


3.4-68.1


20.5


Manganese


38-1941


537


4.0-102.0


26.0


Copper


11-141


41


.15-5.33


1.7


Boron


2.8-630


-


.04-7.4


1.7


Molybdenum


Traces- 12.3


-


Tr-2.80


-


 

The deficiency of Fe was found to be largest 26% in Haryana followed by 18% in Tamil Nadu, 12% in Punjab and 8 to 9% in calcareous soil of Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh.

Adoption of rice-wheat cropping system in place of maize-wheat or groundnut-wheat in non-traditional rice growing areas on highly permeable coarse-textured soils of Punjab and Haryana has been responsible for occurrence of Mn deficiency (33%) particularly in wheat.
The extent of boron (B) deficiency varied from 2% in Gujarat to 68% in West Bengal. 
In general B deficiency is most wide spread in the red and lateritic soils of Karnataka, leached and acid soils of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Orissa and Maharashtra (56%), and in highly calcareous old alluvium of Bihar (22-45%) (Table).

Table 5- Extent of nutrient deficiency in Indian soils


Nutrient


Extent of deficiency (%)


N


L 63%; M 26%


P


L 42%; M 38%


K


L 13%; M 37%


S


L 40%; M 35%


Zn


49.0


Fe


13.0


B


33.0

The deficiency of Mo is common in acid soils of humid region. 
Deficiency of Cl and Ni has not been reported so far in the Indian soils.
Although deficiency of these micronutrients is not an acute nutrient disorder today, production of nearly 300-350 Mt of food grains by 2025 definitely constrain the finite reserves in the soils (Rattan et al 2008).

 

File Courtesy: 
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security
28
Jan

Nutrient mining status

  • Besides this, nutrient losses through various means are alarmingly large which are rarely taken into account. 
  • The soil fertility status of Indian soils has declined drastically over the years following the era of green revolution and is marked by a negative balance of 8-10 M. tons between nutrients removed by the crops and those added through manures and fertilizers leading to mining of soil nutrient capital and steady reduction in soil nutrient supplying capacity. 
  • The loss through soil erosion is second to nutrient removal by crops. 
  • About 8 M t of plant nutrients are lost through water erosion of soil (5.3 billion t) while estimates of leaching and gaseous losses are not available. 
  • Even in well managed cropping systems like rice-wheat raised on currently recommended nutrient levels, depletion of soil fertility has been reported .
  • Considering the projected food grain demand and fertilizer consumption by 2010 and 2025, this gap is likely to increase to 11 and 13.3 Mt of NPK, respectively.  
  • The situation is further aggravated by the depletion of major soil nutrients like N and K in intensive cropping systems and emergence of wide spread deficiencies of secondary (S, Ca) and micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and B). 
  • Soil test data available for major part of the country for the major nutrients (N, P, K) show that 89 and 80% of the soils are low to medium in N and P, and about 50% of the soils are responsive to K supply . District wise soil fertility status of Indian soils also indicates a similar trend .
Table 2: Percentage of soil samples (total 4.54 M) in different categories of nutrient availability
Nutrient

Low

Medium

High

Nutrient Index

Nitrogen

63.1

25.6

11.3

1.48

Phosphorous

42.3

37.7

20.0

1.78

Potassium

12.9

36.7

50.4

2.37
       <1.67 index and >2.33 refer to low and high status.

Table 3: Generalized available N, P and K status in Indian soils
Nutrient

Districts surveyed

Districts having available nutrient status of

Low

Medium

High

N

364

228

118

18

P

360

170

184

17

K

361

47

192

122


File Courtesy: 
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security
28
Jan

Soil resources

 India’s share of soil resources of the world is about 2.3% (geographical area – 329M.ha) supporting 17 and 16% of human population and livestock, respectively. The soils are mainly represented by red and lateritic soils (Alfisols, Ultisols, and Inceptisols – 172.2 M. ha), black soils (Vertisols and their associations – 73.5M.ha), alluvial soils (Entisols and Inceptisols – 58.4 M.ha), desert soils (mostly Aridisols and Entisols – 30M.ha) and Tarai Soils (Mollisols – 8.0 M.ha) (Table 1).    

Soil order

Area (M.ha)

Percent

Entisols

80.

24.3

Inceptisols

95.8

29.1

Vertisols

26.3

8.0

Aridisols

14.3

4.5

Mollisols

8.0

2.4

Ultisols

0.8

0.2

Altisols

79.7

4.3

Oxisols

0.3

0.1

Uncultivable

23.1

7.0

Total

328.7

100.0

 

 

File Courtesy: 
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security
28
Jan

SOIL RELATED CONSTRAINTS IN RICE PRODUCTION

 Introduction

  • The rice-wheat production system has played an important role in the food security and has remained its cornerstone for rural development and natural resource conservation. 
  • But, now evidences of second generation problems have started appearing such as declining productivity, plateauing of crop productivity, declining soil organic matter, receding ground water table, diminishing farm profitability etc., which are mainly attributed to intensive conventional production systems.
  • Rice is the world’s most important staple food crop. 
  • Conventional flooded rice cultivation in Asia provides more than 75% of the world’s rice supply for half the earth’s main staple food.  
  • However, rice production consumes about 30% of all freshwater used worldwide. 
  • In Asia, flood-irrigated rice consumes more than 45% of total freshwater used. 
  • By 2025, 15 out of 75 million hectare of Asia’s flood-irrigated rice crop will experience water shortage. 
  • Rice production is challenged by the increasing shortage of water resource in the world and by the limitation of water resource in the seasonal drought areas. 
  • Alternatives to the conventional flooded rice cultivation need to developed world wide to reduce water consumption and produce more rice with less water. 
  • The yield level of a crop reflects many facets of crop growth including environmental factors such as rainfall, temperature, sunlight and humidity and cultural factors such as planting date, row spacing, cultivar selection and tillage method. 
  • As a result, the interpretation of a relationship is difficult; however response is likely at low yields at high soil test values.  
  • Therefore it is very pertinent to highlight the present fertility status of rice soils of India in terms of its constraints.

File Courtesy: 
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security
28
Jan

Benefits of SSNM

  • SSNM approach can increase Fertilizer use efficiency leading to more grain yield per unit of fertilizer. 
  • This can exclude accumulation of inorganic forms of nutrients during period when crop demand for added nutrient is low and during periods such as at the end of the rice growing season. 
  • The added benefits associated through SSNM  can be used for wider dissemination. 
  • The SSNM benefits disseminated to farmers should strive to increase profitability of rice farming through increased yields. 
File Courtesy: 
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security
28
Jan

Mulching

  • Mulching of Jhum land is done by spreading of the cut grasses, stubble, trash or any other vegetation.  
  • Mulching often minimizes erosion and conserves in situ moisture, besides reducing weeds menace. 
  • Spreading of organic residues is also common.  
  • Trash mulching is practiced in Serchip district (East Lungdar) in sugarcane crops.  
  • Sugarcane stems are crushed for jaggery making and left out trashes, stem remains after crushing  are spread in the field during the winter, which is the period of acute moisture stress owing to the no or negligible rainfall.   
  • In New Serchip block of Serchip district during winter season farmers harvest the maize cobs and stems are cut into 2-3 pieces of. 
  • These pieces are spread in the field as mulch.  The crop residue left on the surface, cushions rain drop impact and reduces water movement, hence soil erosion is checked.  As water runoff and evaporation are reduced, water penetration is improved.   
  • The crop residues and roots build up in the long term, improving soil structure and fertility.   
  • However, farmers have shown concern as these trashes often reduce their cattle feed and they do not practice when they have shortage of fodder.   
  • Banana mulching on the plantation floor is used to conserve soil and water, to maintain soil fertility and to reduce weed growth. 
  • Harvested rainwater is also led into banana plantations via interception ditches. 
  • Banana mulching is a century old tradition. 
  • The indigenous banana mulching practice uses a mix of four different mulch components, namely, bean and sorghum stover, banana pseudo stem, and grass.
File Courtesy: 
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security
28
Jan

Socio-economic and cultural constraints in Rice production

  • Poor economic condition of the shifting cultivators in hills and small and marginal farmers of the plains
  • Lack of skill, work force, attention and management
  • Low level of understanding of the improved farming technology
File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
28
Jan

Environmental constraints in Rice production

  • Noncongenial rugged terrain of the mountain ecosystem for development of settled cultivation
  • Regular occurrence of flood in rainy season in Assam
  • Occasional drought occurrence in hills during winter season
  • Smaller and rainfed dry terraces in hills
  • Micro-agroclimatic conditions of the flat valley lands with higher soil moisture
File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
28
Jan

Implementation constraints in Rice production

  • Lack of integration and coordination between different line departments of different states in the promotion of integrated development strategies
  • Inadequate extension and training support services with little client oriented or participatory extension activities
  • Top-down approach of agricultural programmes without considering the needs of the farmers
  • Lack of on-farm, multidisciplinary and development oriented programmes
  • Lack of integration of research, extension and education in agricultural developmental    programmes
  •  Lack of adequate service facilities such as credit, input supply and marketing of produce
  • Dependent attitude of farmers on government sponsored subsidized schemes
  • Transport and communication bottleneck in remote areas

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
28
Jan

No Till or pot holing

  • It involves slashing of the vegetation or Stover, 
  • leaving it on the ground to dry. Sowing is then done without disturbing the soil, except for the planting holes that may be made by using a digging stick or hoe.
File Courtesy: 
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security
28
Jan

Technical constraints in Rice production

  • High level of diversity in the upland farming systems which do not allow the uniform package of practices for agricultural  development.
  • Limited opportunities for expanding arable farming to maintain the fragile hill ecosystem
  • Difficulty in promoting mechanized agriculture on sloping land
  • Limited availability or access to improved varieties of seeds planting material 
  • High dependency of hill farmers on rice cultivation as staple food
  • Increasing population density in the upland areas resulting  in more pressure on natural resources necessitating a shorter fallow cycles of jhumming, encroachment on forest land extending agriculture on steep sloping lands

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
28
Jan

Surface seeding

  • It is the simplest system for zero tillage or conservation tillage which is generally practiced in paddy fields.    
  • The seeds are broadcasted in the saturated soil surface without any  tillage operation.   
  • This is the only system for low lying poorly drained heavy rice soils that don't allow timely tillage operation for sowing mustard and is widely practiced in Serchip and Champai districts.   
  • This practice cuts the cost of production and does not require any implements.   
  • This method is popular among small, subsistent and below subsistent-level farmers.   
  • However, sowing on the open soil surface makes it possible for seed to be damaged / eaten by birds.   
  • To protect the seed from bird damage, farmers essentially prepare a thin  layer of cow dung on seed surface after seeding 
File Courtesy: 
Brajendra and Vijai Pal Bhadana Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad - Published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Food Security
28
Jan

Constraints in rice production

1. Technical constraints

2.Environmental constraints

3. Socio-economic and cultural constraints

4.  Implementation constraints

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
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