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EIS

18
Apr

DRR Dhan 49 – High Zinc and high yielding rice variety

Technology 5:

DRR Dhan 49 – High Zinc and high yielding rice variety

Technology Profile

DRR Dhan 49 is a high yielding variety with high Zinc content. This variety was developed from the cross RP Bio226*1/CSR27 following backcross and pedigree selection breeding method. This variety contains very high Zinc content of 25.2 ppm which is higher than checks like Kalanamak and Chittimuthyalu. It also recorded superior grain yield than national check IR 64. In addition to superior grain yield and high Zinc, it also possesses strong culm there by having tolerance to lodging. It contains erect and wide flag leaf which improves it photosynthetic ability. It is also having the desirable grain type of Medium slender which is mostly accepted and consumed in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu.

Context

In the past 40 years, agricultural research for developing countries has focused on increased cereal production. Recently, there has been a shift: Agriculture must now not only produce more calories to reduce hunger, but also more nutrient-rich food to reduce hidden hunger.  One in three people in the world suffer from hidden hunger, caused by a lack of minerals (Iron and Zinc) and vitamins in their diets, which leads to negative health consequences. Biofortification provides a feasible means of reaching malnourished rural populations who may have limited access to diverse diets, supplements, and commercially fortified foods. To achieve nutritional security, DRR Dhan 49, a high yielding, high Zn rice variety (Zn content 25 ppm) was developed by crossing RP Bio226 with CSR27. 

Empirical Evidences 

Multilocation testing through AICRIP 

In AICRIP testing for three years (2014-2016), DRR Dhan 49 showed high Zinc content of 25.2ppm which was higher than IR 64 (16.9ppm), BPT 5204 (16.9ppm), Kalanamak (18.7ppm) and Chittumuthyalu (23ppm).

During 2015 and 2016 under AICRIP, the variety recorded superior grain yield than national check IR 64 (4%), Kalanamak (55%) and Chittumuthyalu (22%).

It was found promising for the states of Kerala, Maharashtra and Gujarat with three years of testing under AICRIP.

It is also having the desirable grain type of Medium slender which is mostly accepted and consumed in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

The entry has shown resistance to Bacterial leaf blight disease, moderately tolerant to RTD, Sheath rot, neck blast and brown spot. 

Practical Utility/ Scalability

Rice is a staple food in India and if we use biofortified rice variety like DRR Dhan 49 with high Zinc content, it will reach the poor, under nourished segment of the society. It will be very useful for pregnant women and children to overcome malnutrition.
Since it is high yielding and having Medium slender grain type, tolerant to lodging, it is easily acceptable by farmers of Southern states Telangana, Andhra pradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu.
If this variety is multiplied in large scale and final polished rice is distributed through Public distribution system, it will reach the poor and malnourished people easily.
If tag of High Zinc content is added to the label, the finished product will have higher price in supermarkets, hence farmers income will also increase..

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. T Ram and team

 

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
17
Apr

DRR DHAN 42 [IR 64 (Drt 1)] - First Drought Tolerant MAS derived Rice Variety

 
Technology 2

DRR DHAN 42 [IR 64 (Drt 1)] - First Drought Tolerant MAS derived Rice  Variety

 

Technology Profile

DRR Dhan 42 (IR 64 Drt1) is a first drought tolerant rice variety released in 2014, developed using Marker Assisted Selection. It produces high yield under drought stress conditions at reproductive and grain filling stages. DRR Dhan 42 is a near-isogenic line of IR 64 with two QTLs introgressed for yield under stress qDTY 2.2 and qDTY 4.1. The QTLs for yield under drought stress were introgressed from Aday Sel by repeated backcrossing followed by intermating under IRRI-India STRASA programme. DRR Dhan 42 is characterized by high yield than IR 64 under drought situations and on par yield with IR 64 under normal conditions.
Context
It is estimated that by 2025, 15-20 million hectares of irrigated rice will suffer from some degree of water scarcity. In this context, it is important to develop and promote strategies to help the farmers to adapt for improving water management and productivity. Developing drought tolerant varieties, using the concept of introgressing yield QTLs under drought in high yielding back ground without reducing yield under normal condition is the ideal strategy to maximise rice yields in drought prone areas. This concept was used in the development of DRR Dhan 42. The QTLs for yield under drought stress identified at IRRI and elsewhere were used at IIRR and introgressed qDTY2.2+qDTY4.1 QTLs under drought in the back ground of mega variety IR 64 grown under rainfed mid land using two back cross followed by two selected intermating in association with IRRI, Philippines.

Practical Utility/ Scalability

• DRR Dhan 42 produces high yield under drought stress conditions at reproductive and grain filling stages.                  

• Improving yield of varieties along with drought tolerance is very difficult. Hence, instead of developing drought tolerant varieties, the concept of introgressing yield QTLs under drought inhigh yielding back ground without reducing yield under normal condition is the ideal strategy to maximise rice yields in drought prone areas. 

• Mr Harikrishna Reddy of Shabad Mandal, Rangareddy District of Telangana State cultivated DRR Dhan 42 and IR 64 each in one acre of land during Kharif 2016. DRR Dhan 42 expressed yield advantage of 19.5% over IR 64.

Technology / Concept developed by Dr.  T Ram and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
17
Apr

Improved Samba Mahsuri: a high yielding, bacterial blight resistant, fine-grain type, low glycemic index rice variety

Technology 1

Improved Samba Mahsuri: a high yielding, bacterial blight resistant, fine-grain type, low glycemic index rice variety



Technology Profile

Improved Samba Mahsuri (ISM) is a bacterial blight resistant rice variety, jointly developed and releasedby ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research (ICAR-IIRR), Hyderabad and CSIR-Centre for Cellular andMolecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad through the novel tool of molecular marker-assisted selection. ISM is a fine and medium-slender grains variety having excellent cooking and eating quality with yieldpotential of 5.5-6 t/ha. It is highly resistance against bacterial blight disease, as it possesses threemajor resistance genes, Xa21, xa13 and xa5 incorporated using molecular marker based technology.Recently, it has also been confirmed to be a low glycemic index (50.9) rice.It is one of the first biotechnology derived product in the country and has been registered with Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer’s Rights Authority.

Context

Improved Samba Mahsuri (ISM) can be cultivated in those rice growing areas where bacterial blight disease is endemic and also in the areas where fine-grained rice varieties like Samba Mahsuri, HMT Sona and PKV-HMT are grown.

Under bacterial blight infection, ISM gives more yield than the susceptible varieties like Samba Mahsuri HMT sona, PKV HMT etc. 

Bacterial blight is a serious production constraint in Nizamabad, Karimnagar and Khammam districts of Telangana state and Kurnool, East Godavari, West Godavari, Guntur and Krishna Districts of Andhra Pradesh. Farmer’s in bacterial blight endemic areas of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh can certainly get additional returns by cultivating ISM.

Considering the fact that many areas of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh States are increasingly becoming susceptible to bacterial blight disease, and also considering the increasing demand for fine-grain type rice varieties with low GI values, ISM can certainly give additional returns to farmers of both the states.
Empirical Evidences

Field testing results

Through Front-line demonstrations and mini-kit trails, Improved Samba Mahsuri (ISM) reported an increased yield of 25-40 % in bacterial blight endemic areas of Telangana State and Andhra Pradesh, while in uninfected fields, ISM has been observed to show yield levels similar to its parental variety, Samba Mahsuri. Additionally Most importantly, ISM commands the same premium market price like Samba Mahsuri and hence it is highly preferred by farmers in many parts of the country and also in Telangana State and Andhra Pradesh.

Demonstration yields and incomes:

A socio-economic impact assessment study carried out by MANAGE, Hyderabad has revealed that the trait value of bacterial blight resistance, which represents the value that farmers have obtained by cultivating ISM instead of Samba Mahsuri, amounts to Rs. 240 crore. This represents the estimated reduction in loss that was prevented due to the adoption of ISM owing to its bacterial blight resistance (Reddy, 2017, Economic and political weekly 39: 17-20). Most importantly Improved Samba Mahsuri fetches premium price like Samba Mahsuri and other elite fine-grain type rice varieties and hence the variety is increasingly getting popular in bacterial blight endemic areas throughout the country, especially in those areas, where fine-grained varieties are prefer   

Practical Utility/ Scalability

It is estimated that > 2 Mha in the country is highly prone to bacterial blight disease and in most of these areas, fine-grain varieties like Samba Mahsuri, HMT Sona, Improved Samba Mahsuri (ISM) etc. are being preferred by farmers. Considering the fact that Improved Samba Mahsuri has the same high yield, premium grain quality like Samba Mahsuri and has additional benefits of high level of bacterial blight resistance and low GI value, it can be expected that its area can increase from the present level of ~1,50,000 ha to about 1.5 Mha, thus benefitting the farmers in terms of getting increased yield under bacterial blight incidence and better market price due to its premium grain quality and low GI value. ISM has been licensed to two seed companies, M/s Sri Biotech Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad and M/s Metahelix Life Sciences, Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore. Due to its low GI value, two firms, M/s Good Brands for a Health Life. New Delhi and M/s Gajanan Industries, Nizamabad have signed a licensing agreement for marketing rice grains of ISM. Due to its low GI and high level of resistance to bacterial blight, the area under ISM can be expected to increase significantly in the near future.

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. Raman Meenakshi Sundaram and team

 

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
19
Nov

Harvesting & Storage

IX. Harvesting & storage 

• Harvesting the crop should be done at the right time. Reaping too early or too late affects yield and seed quality. Timely harvest and threshing will ensure good grain quality, high market value, and consumer acceptance.
• The field should be drained 1 week prior to harvesting.
• Harvesting should be done when at least 75% of the grains are matured. If the crop is harvested without proper maturity it leads to loss of viability of grains.
• The harvested material should be dried in the field for 2-3 days.
• The grain should be free from iner t material after threshing and winnowing. The winnowed grains should be sun dried until the moisture content reaches less than 13%.
• Both over drying and under drying will lead to breakage of the grain during processing. High moister content during storage leads to loss of viability due to increased grain respiration and attack of storage insects and pests. Storing paddy
• Paddy seed is sun dried for 2-3 days continuously and then stored in gunny bags on indigenously made 4-5 feet stand to prevent pest infestation.
• Paddy seed is stored in small containers with bamboo called as ‘butta’ (in Telugu). The container is filled with paddy seed and covered with straw and then closed with cow dung paste.
• Seed for consumption purpose are stored in big size storage structure called ‘Gadhi’ with a capacity of 100-150 kunchas (300-450 kgs) of paddy seed.
• The grains should be stored in a place which is free from storage pests.
• They should not be stored in areas with less moisture content.
• The storage structure should not have perforations or holes as it helps the pests to invade. The storage place should have good aeration.
• Control of storage pests like moth and weevil infestation in paddy should be done .For every 50 kg of grain storage, 200 gram salt is placed. In a bag of 100 kg paddy, 200gram of salt is added after filling 50 kg and the remaining 50 kg of grain is filled by addition of 200 gram salt for every 50 kgs grain to control the moth and weevil infestation in paddy.

19
Nov

Pest & Disease Management

 VIII. Pest & disease management

 

Effective pest & disease management is required as it helps in producing better quality grains and better yields. Major Pests of Rice in Andhra Pradesh are


1. Stemborer

 

2. Gallmidge

 

3. Leaf folder

 

4. Hispa

 

5. Leaf mite

 

6. BPH/WBPH

 

7. Panicle mite

 Major Diseases of Rice in Andhra Pradesh are;

 

1. Sheath blight

 

2. Blast

 

3. BLB

 

4. Stem rot

 

5. Red stripe

 

6. Sheath rot

 

7. False smut
 




Pest control during panicle and booting stage

PESTS

CROP  STAGE

CHEMICAL CONTROL

BPH/ WBPH


Panicle initiation to booting stage


Spray acephate @ or monocrotophos @ 2.2 ml or ethofenprox @ 2.0 ml or fenobucarb @ 2.0 ml or imidacloprid @ 0.25 ml or thiamethoxam @ or Buprofuzin 1.6ml per litre of water.

Stem borer


Panicle initiation to booting stage


Car tap hydrochloride 50 WP or acephate or profenophos 2.0 ml /litre of water (or) apply car taphydrochloride 4G @ 8 kg/acre when the adult moths/egg masses @ one/ sq.m are noticed in the field.

Leaf folder


Panicle initiation to booting stage


Spray car taphydrochloride or acephate or profenophos 2.0 ml /litre of water

Panicle mite


Panicle initiation to booting stage


Spray profenophos 2.0 ml or dicofol 5.0 ml/litre of water

BPH/ WBPH


Post flowering


Spray acephate @ or monocrotophos @ 2.2 ml or ethofenprox @ 2.0 ml or fenobucarb @ 2.0 ml or imidacloprid @ 0.25 ml or thiamethoxam @ or Buprofuzin 1.6ml per litre of water

Cut worm


Post flowering


dichlorvos @  1.0 ml + endosulfan @  2.0 ml (or) dichlorovos 1.0 ml +

chlorpyriphos 2.5 ml/litre of water


Disease management

 

Disease

 

Time of application

 

Fungicide

 

Dose

No. of applications &

time interval

 

Sheath blight

 

At   the  initiation of  the  disease. Normally around  45  days  after transplanting in kharif and 30 days after transplanting in rabi


 

Hexaconazole 5EC Validamycin 3L Propiconazole25  EC


 

@ 2ml/l

@ 2ml/l

@ 1ml/l


 

 sprays   at   15-day interval

 

Blast

a) Leaf blast

 

At the initiation of the disease under favourable weather conditions


 

Tricyclazole 75 WP/ Isoprothiolane 40 EC


 

@ 0.6g/ml

@ 1.5 ml/l


 

2 to 3 sprays depending on the severity  & spread of the disease at 15 days interval

 

b) Neck blast

 

i) Under disease favourable weather conditions just before panicle emergence stage


 

Tricyclazole 75 WP/ Isoprothiolane 40 EC


 

@ 0.6g/ml

@ 1.5 ml/l


 

One spray

 

ii) On appearance of the disease

 

Tricyclazole 75WP/ Isoprothiolane 40 EC


 

@ 0.6g/ml

@1.5 ml/l


 

One spray


 

 

BLB

 

No chemical available. Management is mainly through rationalization of nitrogenous fer tilizer application


 

---


 

---


 

---

 

Stem rot


 

At  the appearance of the disease (Normally from maximum tillering to crop maturity stage)


 

Validamycin 3L / Hexaconazole 5EC / Propiconazole 25 EC / Carbendazim 50 WP/ Benomyl 50 WP


 

@ 2ml/l

@ 1ml

@ 2ml/l

@ 1g/l

@ 1 g/l


 

2 to 4 sprays at 10-15 days interval depending how much early the disease has been noticed

 




 

Red stripe

 

At  the appearance of the disease from advanced boot leaf  to crop maturity stage

 

Carbendazim 50 WP

 

@ 1g/l

 

One spray

 

Sheath rot

 

At the appearance of the disease or at panicle emergence stage


 

Carbendazim 50WP


 

@ 1g/l


 

One spray

 

False smut


 

At flowering  stage


 

Propiconazole 25 EC/ Copper       oxycloride

50WP /  Carbendazim

50WP


 

1.0ml/l

2.0g/l

1.0g/l


 

One     spray      during evening hours


 

19
Nov

Weed Management

Weed Management 

Three types of weeds are found in rice fields in Andhra Pradesh i)   Grasses : Monocots, two ranked leaves

ii)   Sedges : Similar to grasses but have 3 ranked and triangular solid stems. They frequently have modified rhizomes adopted for storage and for propagation. Sedges belong to the family cyperaceae, a large family of monocotyledonous plants distinguished chiefly by having active solid stems and 3 ranked stem leaves.
 

GRASSES SEDGES BROADLEAVED WEEDS
Echinochloa colonum,Echinochloa crussgelli, cynodon sps panicum sps Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus iria, Fimbristylis miliaceae Eclipta alba, Commelina bengalensis, Ammonia baccifera
Control of weeds
• Flooded condition of rice field reduces weed intensity.
• Transplanting of rice seedlings in weed free fields.
• Hand weeding is done whenever necessary with an interval of 20-25 days to remove the perennnial and large weeds.
• Mechanical weeding is done with the help of cono weeder or roto weeder.This is useful in the removal of small weeds like 2-3 leaved weeds.

Chemical control of weeds
• Pyrazosulfuron ethyl 10 % -250g / ha, mixed with 30 kg of sand or 500 lit of water and applied 3 - 5 days after transplanting. Or
• Pretilachlor 50 EC - 1.5 lit / ha, mixed with 30 kg of sand or 500 lit of water and applied 3 - 5 days after transplanting.Or
• Butachlor 5 % - 30 kg / ha, mixed with 30 kg of sand or 500 lit of water and applied 3 - 5 days after transplanting.
• Bensulfuron methyl + Pretilachlor (6.69) - 10 Kg / ha, mixed with 30 kg of sand or 500 lit of water and applied 3 - 5 days after transplanting.

Biological Weed Control
• Natural or biological weed control agents are those of biological origin, which suppress or kill the weeds without significantly affecting the desirable plants. They include insects, animals, fish (like Chinese carp), snails, birds (like duck), microbes (fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, etc.), their toxic products, and plants (parasite plants, competing plants) or their products.
• Animals, like pigs feed on the tubers of purple nutsedge (C. rotundus) in the off-season. In control of Ludwigia parviflora in rice fields, steel blue beetle (Haltica cyaamea) and larvae of Bactra verutana were found to bore into shoots of Cyperus rotundus.
• Plant pathogen, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sp. Aeschynomene was found effective for control of Aeschynomene virginica and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sp. Jussiaceae for the control of Ludwigia decurrens.
• Other Pathogens that have been shown potential as biological control agents for controlling weeds in rice, include Drechslera monoceras for the control of Echinochloa crusgalli, Epicoccosorus nematosporus for the control of Echinochloa kuroguwa. Biocontrol of E. kuroguwai has become possible by means of a plant pathogen, Epicoccosorus nematosporus, and of Scirpus planculmis by a pathogen Alternaria sp.

Related Terms: EISWeed Management
19
Nov

Water Management

Water management 

  • A thin film of water (2-3 cm) should be maintained at the time of weedicide application and should not be drained up to one week. Maintain water level at 5 cm depth during first seven days after planting and thereafter up to completion of tillering at 2 cm depth. 
  • Maintain water level at 5 cm depth from panicle initiation to grain maturity. Drain the water before fer tilizer application. Mid season drying discourages unproductive tillers. Drain the field one week before harvest.Drain the field and aerate whenever Sulphide injury occurs. Ensure drainage in deltaic alluvial soils (East and West Godavari and Nellore districts).
Water requirements of rice at different growth stages
S.No. Growth stage Depth of submergence (cm)
1. At transplanting 2
2.  After transplanting for 3 days (3 DAT)   5
  3. DAT up to max. tillering  2


  4. At max. tillering (in fer tile fields)  NIL


    (in fer tile fields) NIL 5.Max. tillering to PI 2 6.P1 to 21 DA flowering 5
19
Nov

Land Preperation

Land preparation typically involves ploughing, harrowing, and levelling the field to make it suitable  for crop establishment. Plough the field upto 12-15 cm deep so that the weeds and the stubbles get incorporated in the soil and get decomposed. •  Ploughing should be done 3-4 weeks prior to sowing. Draft animals, such as oxen, 2-wheel tractors or 4-wheel tractors can all be used ploughing the land effectively. •  After ploughing, harrowing should be done twice, with one week gap between the two. First harrowing should be done after 1 week of ploughing. The second harrowing should be done across the first harrowing. •  The land should be submerged in 2-5 cm of standing water so that pudding is done and decomposition of organic matter occurs soon. Bunds should be prepared and cleaned thoroughly as the harbour pests and diseases. •  Bunds should be compacted to prevent seepage, and properly maintained at 15 cm high x 20 cm wide to prevent rat burrowing.  The initial soil tillage can also be performed with a rotavator instead of a plough.

19
Nov

Seeds and Varietal Selection

Resistant Variety PESTS/DISEASES/ABIOTIC FACTORS VARIETIES RECOMMENDED Resistant for Diseases For blast Rasi, Samba Mahsuri, NLR 9672, NLR 9674, MTU 7014, NLR 13969, Tikkanna, Pinakini, NLR 28600, IR 20 For leaf blight Improved Samba Mahsuri, IR 36, IR 20 For tungro virus Vikrarmarya, IR 20 Resistant for Pests For Brown Plant Hopper Vajram, Pratibha, Sonasali, Krishnaveni, Chaitanya & Priya For gall midge IR 36, Phalguna, Surekha, Dhanyalakshm, MTU 2400, Divya, Pothana For stem borer Sasyasree Resistant to Abiotic factors Drought tolerant Rasi, MTU 17, Cold tolerant Satya, tella hamsa Saline tolerant Vikas High yielding varieties of Rice: Abhaya, Akshaya, Amara, APHR 1, APHR 2, Apurva, Badava Mahsuri, Bapatla Sannalu, Bhadrakali, Bharani, Bhavapuri Sannalu, Chaitanya, Chandan, Cottondora Sannalu, Deepti, Dhanya Lakshmi, Divya, DRRH 1, Early Samba, Erra Mallelu, Gautami, Godavari, Gutti Akkullu, Hamsa, Hari, Indra, Indur Samba, Jagtial Mahsuri, Jagtial Samba, Jagtial Sannalu, Kakatiya, Karimnagar Samba, Kavya, Kesava, Kotha Bayyahunda, Kothamolagolukulu 74, Krishna Hamsa, Krishnaveni, Lakshmi, Mahendra, Mahsuri Manair Sona, Maruteru Sannalu, Motigold, MTU 9993, Nagarjuna, Nagavali, Nandi, Nandyal Sannalu, Nellore Mahsuri, Orugallu Pardhiva, Penna, Phalguna, Pinakini, Polasa prabha-Mahsuri, Pothana, Prabhat, Prakash, Prasanna, Pratibha, Pushkala, Raja Vadlu, Rajendra, Ramappa, Ravi, Rudrama, Sagar Samba, Saleem, Samba Mahsuri, Satya, Seshu, Shanthi, Shiva, Shravani, Simhapuri, Somasila, Sonal, Sona Mahsuri, Sonasali, Sowbhagya,Sree Kurma,Srikakulam Sannalu, Srinivas, Sriranga, Srisatya, Sugandha Samba, Sumati, Surekha, Surya, Swarna, Swarnamukhi, Swathi, Taramati, Tella Hamsa Tholakari, Tikkana, Vajram, Vamsadhara, Vamshi, Varalu, Vasistha, Vasundhara, Vedagiri, Vibhava, Vijaya Mahsuri, Vijetha, Vikramarya, Warangal. Seed Treatment a. Wet method of Seed treatment Fungicide Concentration Dithane M 45 2.5 g/lt of water Captaf 2.5 g/lt of water. b. Dry method of seed treatment Fungicide Concentration Dithane M 45 2.5 g/kg of seed Captaf 2.5 g/kg of seed. Breaking dormancy For varieties having seed dormancy, treat the seed with 6.3 ml of concentrated Nitric acid dissolved in 1 lit of water. For strong dormant seeds, it is adviced to use 10ml of concentrated Nitric acid per 1ml of water and soak for 24 hr and then allow it for sprouting. Seed Treatment with Azospirillum • Three packets (600 g/ha) of Azospirillum and 3 packets (600 g/ha) of Phosphobacteria or 6 packets (1200 g/ha) of Azophos. • In bio-inoculants mixed with sufficient water wherein the seeds are soaked overnight before sowing in the nursery bed. Seed Treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens 1. Treat the seeds with talc based formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g/kg of seed and soak in 1 lit of water overnight. 2. Decant the excess water and allow the seeds to sprout for 24 hrs and then sow. Seed rate 1. Well germinated seeds are to be sown @ 650 g to 1 kg per bed depending on grain size. 2. Requirement of seed for transplanting one hectare of main field is 40 to 45 kg. 50 to 75 kg/ha. for broadcasted crop. 40 to 50 kg/ha. for drilling behind the gorru

19
Nov

Zinc Deficiency

  Symptom

 

Poor stand and establishment, lack of growth and tillering.

• Unhealthy and sickly appearance of crop at 3-4 weeks after transplantion even after receipt of adequate quantities of N,P and K fer tilizers

• Basal mid rib bleaching of 3rd / 4th leaf from top at about 2-4 weeks after transplantion.

• Dark brown rusty spots on the upper par t near the tips of older and mature leaves.

 

Correction

 

 

 Application of  zinc  sulphate  @   20 kg/ac at  puddling is  suggested  as  a prophylactic measure in Zinc deficient endemic soils

•  Deficiency in the standing crop can be corrected by spraying zinc sulphate @

0.2% (2  g/L of water). The spraying should be repeated at 5 days interval depending on the severity of the problem

•  Zinc sulphate solution should not  be mixed with any insecticide / fungicide

17
Nov

Nursery Management

Nursery management • Select well filled high density seed of variety suitable to the location/season. Nursery should be prepared nearer to the main field so as to minimize the shock during transplanting. Utmost care should be taken while preparing the nursery as it is the place where rice seedlings grow and establish. • Plough the soil thoroughly 3 to 4 times and level it perfectly. Make channels for irrigation water and drainage. Incorporate one tonne compost/FYM per 1000 m2 bed during last ploughing/puddling. • In locations of low temperature regimes (15-25oC) apply double the dose of phosphorus in two or three dressings • Protect against bird damage of seed by netting or taking colour ribbons Tips for Growing Nursery in AP/ Telangana • Plough the soil thoroughly 3 to 4 times and level it perfectly. Make channels for irrigation water and drainage. • For 5 cents of nursery bed apply 2kg. Nitrogen(1kg at the time of broadcasting the seed and another after 12 to 14 days) 1kg P O and 1kg Potash. In cold prone 2 5 areas apply double dose • Broadcast the sprouted seed 5kg /cent of soil. • Allow it to dry for some time and give slight irrigation at first leaf stage. • If zinc deficiency is noticed spray 2g ZnSO4 dissolved in 1 liter of water. In case of dry nursery if Iron deficiency is noticed spray 2% Ferrous sulphate solution. • Apply Carbofuran 3G granules 10 days after broadcasting the seed per cent of nursery @160g or Monocrotophos 1.6ml or Cloripyriphos 2.0 ml per liter of wate. Apply Carbofuran 3g granules @160g per cent of nursery week days before uprooting the nursery. • For 5 cents of nursery bed apply 2kg. Nitrogen (1 kg at the time of broadcasting the seed and another after 12 to 14 days) 1kg P2O5 and 1kg Potash. In cold prone areas apply double dose. • Broadcast the sprouted seed 5kg /cent of soil. Seeds should be free from weed seeds • Allow it to dry for some time and give slight irrigation at first leaf stage. • Weeding should be done once in 15-20 days as it helps seedlings grow effectively without competition for nutrients, water etc. • If zinc deficiency is noticed spray 2g ZnSO4 dissolved in 1 liter of water. In case of dry nursery if Iron deficiency is noticed spray 2% ferrous sulphate solution. • Apply Carbofuran 3G granules 10 days after broadcasting the seed per cent of nursery @160g or Monocrotophos 1.6ml or Cloripyriphos 2.0 ml per liter of wate. Apply Carbofuran 3g granules @160g per cent of nursery week days before uprooting the nursery. Types of Nurseries 1. Wet-Bed Nursery 2. Dry-Bed Nursery 3. Dapog or Mat nursery 4. Modified Mat Nursery

17
Nov

Nutrient Management

Sufficient amount of nutrients should be supplied to the crop right from transplanting to harvesting as it helps in better crop growth finally giving better yields. Ensure soil fer tility tests are done to your field and apply the nutrients accordingly recommended by the soil health report .
• 3-4 tons of FYM should be applied to the field at the time of ploughing
• Both oversupply and under supply of nutrients to the crop is a threat.
• Oversupply of nutrients results to increased susceptibility of the crop to pests, lodging, etc. 


Nursery


·        

Basal fer tilization with 0.5 kg of `N’; 0.5 kg of `P and 0.5 Kg of ‘K’ per every 100 sq m  is required to get robust seedlings, followed by another 0.5 kg `N’ at 12 days after sowing.

 


·        

Spray ZnSO4 @ 2.0 g /l for correction of Zinc deficiency  if deficiency  is observed.

 


·        

Spray 5-10 g ferrous sulphate (or) ferrous ammonium sulphate with 0.5 to 1.0 gram of citric acid per litre of water to correct Iron deficiency in the nursery crop.

 

Main Field

 


·        

Ameliorate soil acidity in upland soils of East Godavari, west Godavari and khammam districts by appropriate liming.

 


·        

In soils of excessive percolation use urea in 3-4 split dosesor use coated nitrogen fer tilizers such as neem coated urea in kavali area of Nellore and par ts of chittoor.

 


·        

Amelioration of salinity/alkalinity in east Godavari, west Godavari and Nellore districts through green manuring, drainage and appropriate Gypsum application

 


·        

Nitrogen is to be applied in three splits (at basal, at active tillering Stage & at Panicle Initiation stage) P & ‘K’ may  be applied as basal in heavy soils. In case of light soils, ‘K’ may  be applied in two equal splits i.e., at basal and at panicle initiation stage.

 


·        

For late planted conditions apply nitrogen in two splits only (65% basal and 35% at 20 DAT).


 

16
Apr

Spacing depends on several factors

  • With excellent cultural practices, the spacing may be slightly wider, say 20x15 cms but under sub-normal conditions, the spacing should be slightly narrower, say 15x10 cms.
  • Under good management and adequate nitrogen levels, the optimum spacing for varieties should be around 20x10 cms both for kharif and rabi crops.

Adopt proper spacing & ensure adequate plant population

File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
15
Apr

Crop Establishment

  • At 2-5 leaf stage (20-25 days age) , uproot the nursery, trim the tips of seedlings and transplant.
  • Crop establishment is a very important part and hence utmost care is needed to ensure good crop establishment.
  • Synchronous planting should be followed which enables efficient use of irrigation, and reduces
  • incidence of pests.
  • Seedlings should be uproooted from the nursery without damaging the roots and with minimal
  • shock.
  • Make sure that the seedlings are not mixed with weed seedlings.
  • Line transplanting should be followed as it helps in better crop growth and intercultural operations.
  • Generally recommended spacing is 15x10 or 20x10 cm.
  • Proper spacing should be followed between two seedlings to ensure that competition for nutrients
  • will not be there
  • In case of Direct Seeding, sowing should be done after proper puddling and levelling the land.
  • Direct sowing is practiced in areas with lower rainfall or areas with water and labor scarcity.



File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

NURSERY MANAGEMENT

  • Nursery should be prepared nearer to the mainfield so as to minimize the shock during transplanting.
  • Utmost care should be taken while preparing the nursery as it is the place where rice seedlings grow and establish themselves.
  • Prepare the type of nursery based on your resources such as water, type of soil etc eg : Wet bed method is practiced in areas of water abundance and Dry bed method is practiced in areas of less water and where the soil is loamy or clayey.
  • Appropriate seed rate (15-20 kg/ha) should be used based on the variety/ hybrid selected. Farmers use very high seed rate, which is not required and wasteful.
  • For good preparation of your nursery, Plough the soil thoroughly 3 to 4 times and level it perfectly. Make channels for irrigation water and drainage.
  • Incorporate one tonne compost/FYM per 1000 m2 bed during last ploughing/puddling.
  • Broadcast the sprouted seed 5kg /100 sq.mt of soil. Make sure the seeds are free from weed seeds. For 200 sq.mt of nursery bed apply 2kg. Nitrogen (1kg at the time of broadcasting the seed and another after 12 to 14 days) 1kg P2O5 and 1kg Potash. In cold prone areas apply double dose.
  • Allow it to dry for some time and give slight irrigation at first leaf stage.
  • Weeding should be done once in 15-20 days as it helps seedlings grow effectively without competition for nutrients, water etc.
  • If zinc deficiency is noticed spray 2 g ZnSO4 dissolved in 1 liter of water. In case of dry nursery if Iron deficiency is noticed spray 20 g / 1 lt. (2%) ferrous sulphate solution.
  • Protect your Nursery against bird damage of seed by netting or taking colour ribbons.
  • Apply Carbofuran 3 G granules 10 days after broadcasting the seed per cent of nursery @160g or Monocrotophos 1.6ml or Chloropyriphos @ 2.0 ml per liter of water. Apply Carbofuran 3 G granules @ 160 g per 40 sq.mt of nursery week days before uprooting the nursery.
  • Seedlings should be uprooted with soil and transplanted immediately so as to minimse the shock to the seedlings. See to it that the time gap between uprooting the seedlings and transplanting is less.
File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

“Raise healthy nursery for healthy crop”

The seed rate naturally influences the growth of the seedlings. Thin sowing gives strong and tillered seedlings, whereas thick sowing results in thin and tall seedlings without tillers.

Thin sowing in nurseries is always better and it will produce strong and sturdy seedlings, which can withstand adverse climatic conditions better and produce better yields. Therefore, 40 to 60 grams of seed per square metre should be sown in the nursery beds. About 500 square metre area of nursery is sufficient to transplant one hectare area. In case of late sowing of nursery, the nursery area should be increased to 750-1000 square metre.

File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

Varietal selection

  • Select good quality & high density seed of a variety/ hybrid suitable to the location/season.
  • Varieties should be selected based on the environment and the season in which they are to be grown.
  • The most suitable variety is the one that best meets the farmer and the consumer’s needs. It may not always give the highest yield and the choice will be influenced by availability of water, either from rain or irrigation, soil type, field elevation and whether the rice will be sold or consumed at home.
  • Select varieties resistant to pests and diseases, if the area is prone to endemic diseases/ pests. In case, there are problem soils such as acidic or salinity, varieties which are suitable for specific soils (say saline tolerant varieties) should be selected.
  • Varieties which are already grown in the area and having good yield records should be selected. In case new varieties/ hybrids are to be grown, enquire about their performance in FLDs or on-farm trials.
  • We should go for new varieties initially on trial basis, and if it works out well it can be cultivated in the whole area.

                                                                 



File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
Photo Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

“Plant pure, clean and healthy seeds”

Good quality seed reduces the required seed rate, produces strong healthy seedlings which results in a more uniform crop and higher yields.

Good seed is
  • clean - no stones or soil, weed seed,
  • pure - only seeds from one variety,
  • healthy - full big grains, same color, no cracks or spots

File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

SEEDS AND VARIETAL SELECTION

  • Select good quality seeds which are free from seed borne pests, diseases and weeds.
  • Select seeds which are bold, uniform in size and filled completely.
  • Seeds should be soaked in salt water and remove immature and chaffy seeds. Select only bold seeds and wash thoroughly with clean water for 2 - 3 times and dry under shade.
  • If seeds are farmer grown it should undergo germination test before using for sowing.
  • Select seeds which have good germination rate (> 85%).
  • Get seeds from reliable sources like government agencies or certified private companies, Agricultural universities, KVK’s,Agricultural research stations etc.,
  • Before seeds are sown they should be treated with either
  • fungicides like Carbondazim, Dithane M 45 @ 2.5 g/kg of seed (or) Cartap @ 2.5 g/kg of seed.
  • They can also be treated with bio control agents like Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 gm per kg of seed etc. 
File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

“Levelled fields give the best yields”

A well prepared and leveled field gives a uniform,healthy crop that can compete with weeds, uses less water and gives higher yields at a lower cost.
A well prepared field has:
  • Many small soil clods to give good seed ‘soil contact’
  • No weeds
  • Harder layer at 10 cm to stop water percolation
  • Level and smooth surface after puddling
  • Well-constructed bunds
File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
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