Production Know How
Production Know How
1. Grain size and shape (length-width ratio) is a varietal property.
2. Long slender grains normally have greater breakage than short, bold grains and consequently have a lower milled rice recovery.
3. The grain dimensions also dictate to some degree the type of milling equipment needed.
4. For instance, the Japanese designed milling equipment may be better suited to short-bold, japonica grains whereas Thai made equipment will be more suitable for longer, slender grain types.
1. Rice seeds must be placed close to the soil surface.
2. When dry seeding into heavier clay soils, place seeds within 10 to 15 mm of the surface.
3. If seeds are placed at depths greater than this, surface sealing will restrict the number of shoots that emerge and increase the time to emergence.
4. When wet seeding, seeds should not sink below the puddled surface.
5.Where possible the water is allowed to partially clear before seeding.
6.This may require waiting for up to 48 hours after puddling.
1. A mixture of varieties causes difficulties at milling and usually results in reduced capacity, excessive breakage, lower milled rice recovery and reduced head rice.
2. Different sizes and shaped grains make it more difficult to adjust hullers, whiteners and polishers to produce whole grains.
3. This results in low initial husking efficiencies, a higher percentage of re-circulated paddy, non-uniform whitening, and lower grade of milled rice.
1. Purity is related to the presence of dockage in the grain.
2. Dockage refers to material other than paddy and includes chaff, stones, weed seeds, soil, rice straw, stalks, inert material etc.
3. These impurities generally come from the field or from the drying floor. Unclean paddy increases the time taken to clean and process the grain.
4. Foreign matter in the grain reduces milling recoveries and the quality of rice and increases the wear and tear on milling machinery.
1. To begin the germination process, the seed absorbs a certain amount of moisture from its surroundings.
2. In a dry seed bed, absorption occurs after distribution through the seed being in contact with moist soil or being submerged in water.
3. For seeds to make good contact with the soil, soil peds (clods) need to be similar in size to the seed and actually make physical contact with the seed.
4. Seed soaking or seed priming prior to planting expedites the absorption process and is often used to increase the rate of plant establishment.
1. Moisture content (MC) has a marked influence on all aspects of paddy and rice quality and it is essential that paddy be milled at the proper moisture content to obtain the highest head rice recovery.
2. Paddy is at its optimum milling potential at moisture content of 14% wet weight basis.
3. Grains with high moisture content are too soft to withstand hulling pressure which results in grain breakage and possibly pulverization of the grain.
4. Grain that is too dry becomes brittle and has greater breakage.
To start growing, a seedling,
1. Absorbs moisture from its surrounding environment
2. Establishes a root system in a moist layer of soil
3. Has its shoots and leaves break out above the soil surface.
4. Several environmental conditions affect a seedling’s capacity to do this:
5. contact between the seed and soil water
6. Depth at which seed is placed and number of pests present.
A number of interrelated features determine the quality of paddy. These are:
6.Damaged grains, and discolored/fermented grains.
The degree of excellence in seed quality characters decides the following.
1. The productivity of field level.
2. Genetic purity at further multiplication.
3. The storability of seed.
4. Quality of resultant seed will be more.
5. Seed with higher seed quality characters generates higher income.
1. Seed moisture content.
2. Seed maturation.
3. Seed size.
4. Seed colour.
5. Seed purity (free from weed and other crop seed).
6. Seed admixture.
Characters of Quality Seed include Genetic purity, Physical purity, Physiological status of seed and Health status of seed.
1. Genetic purity: Seed should be genetically pure or true to type or resemble, its mother at all stages of reproduction (Seed - Plant - Seed). It is needed for maintenance of variety for future generation with originality.
1. A seed strictly speaking is an embryo, a living organism embedded in the supporting or the food storage tissue and seed coat.
2. Seed is a basic and crucial input to increase crop yield per unit area without which all other inputs and operations carried out will become waste.
What is Seed Quality:
1. A grain to be a seed it should have liveliness. The seed to be a quality produce and it should have seed quality characters (as below).
2. Only quality seed can reproduce well and preserve the future generation without any deviation in original characters.
1. The production potential and cost effectiveness of the biofertilizers can be demonstrated to the rice farmers in a convincing way so as to disseminate the technology at a faster rate. In this aspect, the block level compact frontline demonstrations can be taken up in the entire major rice growing ecosystem.
2. The All India Radio, Dooradarshan and private television channels can come forward to broadcast and telecast the talk and presentations of biofertilizers experts in local languages to reach the wider audience.
1. The benefits of biofertilizer application depend on several soil and crop management aspects in field conditions.
2. Soil and climatic problems such as unfavorable pH, high temperature, drought, high nitrate, deficiency of P, Mo, Fe, Cu, Co, presence of toxic elements, competition from the native strains and compatibility with lost genotypes, lack of knowledge and availability of quality products, use of substandard inoculants, lack of proper handling or faulty inoculation methods are important field level constraints for poor response of biofertilizers in filed.
1. Retail fertilizer dealers do not keep biofertilizers mainly because of the short shelf likfe, limited demand and lack of storage facilities.
2. These are major constraints in the availability of biofertilizers in the market. Shelf life of carrier based inoculants, which are currently being produced, is usually three months or not more than six months.
3. Further due to poor awareness among framers as well as development staff (Extension Staff) demand of biofertilizers is not increasing.
1. Unavailability of appropriate and location specific strains, efficient, competitive and high N fixer with wide range of host under diverse environmental conditions, N fixing ability under high available soil N conditions, survival and persistence in soil, mobility in soil, ability to survive in moisture deficient, high temperature and adverse soil conditions etc.
a. Unavailability of good carrier material: Currently using inner materials are peat, charcoal,lignite, mixture of FYM and soil which have short life. The liquid inoculants could be better alternative.
1. Production and distribution level constraints.
2. Marketing level constraints.
3. Field level constraints.
a) Biofertilizers should always be stored in a cool place or at room temperature (25° to 28°C for shelf life).
b) Biofertilizer should never come in direct contact with chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides during storage or during application.
c) The storage and use of biofertilizers should always be avoided in direct sunlight.
d) The inoculum should be used before expiry date. e) when both fungicides and insecticides are to be used, apply fungicides before insecticides application.
1. 1kg Rhizobium = 100 kg N=214.5 kg urea.
2. 1 kg Azotobacter /Azospirillum= 40 kg N=85.8 kg urea.
3. 1 kg BGA =2kg N = 4.2 kg urea.
Biofertilizers are important for their contribution as agricultural input to sustainable rice production due to the following advantages.
1. Biofertilizers supplement chemical fertilizers as they contribute plant nutrients through biological nitrogen fixation and solubilization of fixed phosphate.
2. They are cheap so can help to reduce chemical fertilizer consumption.
3. They provide atmospheric nitrogen directly to the rice crop by way of nitrogen fixation.
4. They enhance plant growth to release of hormones, vitamins, auxins etc.
5. It is reported that 10 to 20 per cent rice yield can be increased with their use.
6. They control soil borne diseases as some of the inoculants produce antibiotics.
7. They help in proliferation and survival of beneficial microorganism of soil.
8. They improve soil properties and sustain soil fertility.
9. They help in mineralization of plant nutrients.
10. They are eco-friendly and pollution free because they contain only beneficial microorganism and not the chemicals.
Know more about Types of Bio-Fertilizers Watch video on Bio-Fertilizer