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Production Know How

Production Know How
25
Aug

Reduced head rice yield

1. Major cause for fissuring of rice kernels is the moisture adsorption of individual dry grains with moisture contents below 16 %.

2. This can happen either when wet grain is mixed with dry grain or when dry grain is exposed to humid ambient air with a relative humidity higher than the equilibrium relative humidity at the corresponding grain moisture content. 

3. Fissures in rice kernels usually lead to cracking of the grain during the milling process and thus reduce the head rice recovery.

 

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/drying-basics/grain-moisture-content-and-grain-quality
25
Aug

Loss of freshness/odour development

1. Deterioration of quality or aging of stored rice results from a combination of a change in the chemical components and changes of rice kernel characteristics. 

2. Heat build up in the grain (above 55ºC) due to insects, molds or high humidity will often lead to a musty odour in rice.

3. Therefore, rice stored for longer periods under adverse conditions can develop odours which reduce the market value of rice considerably. 

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/drying-basics/grain-moisture-content-and-grain-quality
25
Aug

Loss of germination and vigour

1. Moisture in grain will gradually reduce germination ability of the seed during storage.

2. Active respiration of the grain during storage will deplete the nutrition reserves that the seed uses to germinate or sprout. 

3. Molds and diseases can also reduce the ability of the seed to germinate.

4. The lower the moisture content of seed at the beginning of storage, the longer the seed remains viable.

 

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/drying-basics/grain-moisture-content-and-grain-quality
25
Aug

Discoloration/Yellowing

1.  Rice endosperm often develops a yellow

discoloration during commercial storage in conditions of high temperature and moisture, thereby reducing the value of the grain. 

2. This postharvest yellowing appears to be coincidental with fungal presence. 

3. Paddy discoloration is a complex biochemical process; it can be easily avoided by timely drying of paddy after harvest.

 

File Courtesy: 
http://cerealchemistry.aaccnet.org/doi/abs/10.1094/CC-82-0721
25
Aug

Insect infestation during storage

1. Field infestation, insects fly from stores to fields and lay eggs upon the maturing grains.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.ikisan.com/Crop20Specific/Eng/links/ap_maizeStoredGrainPests.shtml
25
Aug

Mold development during storage

1. Fungal deterioration of grain is a dynamic process that involves a succession of micro-organisms, the breakdown of organic matter to yield carbon dioxide and water, and the generation of heat (Bothast, 1978).

2. Nutrients are lost because of changes in carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and vitamins.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.protek-usa.com/PDF_Files/Heat20Build.pdf
25
Aug

Heat build up in the grain during storage

1. In commercial storage of rice grains the build-up of heat mainly because of the respiration of the wet grains and also the store grain pests.

2. Development of the heat results the   gradual deterioration of viability, nutritive quality, and end use properties during storage under commercial conditions.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.protek-usa.com/PDF_Files/Heat%20Build.pdf
25
Aug

Grain moisture content and grain quality

1. The total amount of moisture present

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/drying-basics/grain-moisture-content-and-grain-quality
25
Aug

Drying basics of paddy

1. Drying of grain involves exposing grain to ambient air with low relative humidity or to heated air.

2. This will evaporate the moisture from the grain and then the drying air will remove the moisture from the grain bulk.

3. Since drying practices can have a big impact on grain quality or seed quality, it is important to understand some fundamentals of grain drying.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/drying-basics
25
Aug

Purpose of drying

1. The purpose of paddy drying is to reduce the moisture content of rough rice to a safe level for storage.

2. The rice crop is harvested at 24-26 % moisture content

3.These moisture has to be reduced to 12-13 % by drying Any delays in drying leads to yellowing, grain discoloration and build up of heat by mold growth.

4. Damage caused by insects that are more active at higher moisture content levels.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.fao.org/teca/content/rice-paddy-drying-systems
25
Aug

Paddy Drying

1. Drying is the process of simultaneous

heat and moisture transfer. 

2. It is the removal of excess moisture from the grains. Once dried, the rice grain, now called rough rice, is ready for processing.

3. Proper drying results in increased storage life of the grains, prevention of deterioration in quality, reduction of biological respiration that leads to quality loss of grains, and optimum milling recovery.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/introduction-to-paddy-drying
10
Aug

Transportation

The most common modes of transportation are:

1)Road transportation : Road transport is the most predominant by used in the movement of paddy/rice. a.Road transport is used in right from the producing fields to the ultimate consumer. The initial movement of paddy/rice is done on village roads, which are generally non tarred (Kachha), and mostly tracks wind through the fields.

File Courtesy: 
DRR TRAINING MANUAL
10
Aug

Packaging

Packaging

1.Packaging is closely related to labeling and branding. In present scenario, branding and labeling of rice has significant impact on consumer preference.

2. More care is required in packaging of rice meant for export.

3.This is because of demonstrative effect and the requirements of consumers in different countries; exporters have now started using transparent, colourful and attractive packaging.

File Courtesy: 
http://agmarknet.nic.in/rice-paddy-profile_copy.pdf
10
Aug

Grading under Agmark

Grading under Agmark

1. Grading under Agmark is carried out by the Directorate of Marketing & Inspection in accordance with the grade specifications notified by the Central Government under the provisions of Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act, 1937 and Rules made there-under.

2. Grading of rice under AGMARK is voluntary for internal domestic consumption

File Courtesy: 
http://agmarknet.nic.in/rice-paddy-profile_copy.pdf
10
Aug

Grading at producers’ level

Grading at producers’ level

1.The scheme, “Grading at Producers’ level” was introduced in 1962-63 by Directorate of Marketing and Inspection (DMI).

2.The main objective of this scheme is to subject the produce to simple tests and assign a grade before it is sold for sale.

3.The programme is being implemented by the State Governments.

File Courtesy: 
http://agmarknet.nic.in/rice-paddy-profile_copy.pdf
10
Aug

Adulterants and toxins

Adulterants and toxins

1. Admixtures: Sand, marble chips, stones etc

2. Chemicals: Residues on contaminated seeds like mercury, copper, tin, zinc etc. and pesticide residues.

3. Fungal: Toxins in moist grains from : fusarium Sportrichiella toxins in yellow rice from Penicillium inslandium, Penicillium citreovirede, Penicillium atricum, Rhizopus, Aspergillus etc.

4. Viral: Machupo virus: Due to rodent’s urine.

5. Natural contamination: Asbestos (present in talc, kaolin etc.).

File Courtesy: 
http://agmarknet.nic.in/rice-paddy-profile_copy.pdf
10
Aug

Grade specifications

Grade specifications

1) Be the dried mature grains (with husk) of Oryza sativa L.;

2) Have uniform size, shape and colour;

3) Be hard, clean, wholesome and free from moulds, weevils, obnoxious smell, discolouration, admixture of deleterious substances and all other impurities except to the extent indicated in the under special characteristics;

4) Be in sound merchantable condition; and

5) Not have moisture exceeding 14 per cent.

File Courtesy: 
http://agmarknet.nic.in/rice-paddy-profile_copy.pdf
10
Aug

Standards and grades for milled rice

Standards and grades for milled rice

1. Standards can be defined as a quantitative way by which we measure and compare certain quality characteristics.

2. This measured comparison of recognizable quality characteristics can described as ‘grading’.

3. To date, there are few universally accepted international standards for paddy and milled rice.

4. This is primarily due to differences in emphasis on the importance of grading paddy and milled rice quality among countries.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/procedures-for-measuring-quality-of-milled-rice
10
Aug

Grading

Grading

Grading is to separate milled grain according to size and quality--whole grain, broken grain, short grain, or long grain

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/procedures-for-measuring-quality-of-milled-rice
10
Aug

Gel consistency

Gel consistency

1.Select 2 to 10 grains and ground separately in the Wig-L Bug.

2. Gel consistency is measured by the cold gel in a horizontally-held test tube, for one hour.

Measurement ranges and category are as follows:

Category Consistency (mm)
Soft 61-100
Medium 41-60
Hard 26-40

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/procedures-for-measuring-quality-of-milled-rice
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