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Production Know How

Production Know How
30
Jul

Method and Area of Application of Biofertilizers

Different methods are available for applications of various biofertilizers which are outlined below:

1. As seed inoculant-e.g., Rhizobium. Seed treatment is a most common method adopted for all types of inoculant. The seed treatment is effective and economic.

2. As soil inoculant-e.g., carrier based blue-green algae, Azotobacter.

3. As seed & soil inoculant - VAM fungi.

4. Carrier materials for BGA inoculum are straw, rice bran, polyurethane foam and sugarcane waste.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Critical Factors Responsible For the Effectiveness of Biofertilizers

The critical factors which are responsible for the effectiveness of a particular biofertilizer are as follows: 1.Suitability of the species to the target crop.

2. Suitability of the strain: There are specific strains of Rhizobium for different leguminous species like Cowpea, Red gram, Soybean, Alfalfa etc. Biofertilizer specific culture should be used for specific crop.

3. Identification of strains as suited to the agro eco system, particularly the soil pH moisture conditions.

4. Through research, specific strains as suited to a particular soil environmental conditions are usually identified and pure mother cultures maintained in research labs for supply to the commercial manufacturers.

5. The aseptic conditions of manufacturing, the cell count of living organism present the carrier material, purity and level of contamination.

6. The conditions of carrier material in which the culture is packed and the quality of packing material, which determine the shelf life.

7. The conditions in which the packed materials are stored, distributed and kept with farmers before it is applied. 8. Soil conditions particularly pH, organic matter content, moisture level and agronomic practices.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Factors Affecting Efficient use of Phosphate Soubilizing Biofertilizers

a) Nitrogen Sources: The phosphate solubilizing micro-organisms a good amount of rock phosphate in the presence of nitrogen sources.

b) PH: The optimum pH for maximum solubilization of inorganic phosphate has been found to be in neutral or acidc soils.

c) Temperature: The optimum activity of fungi is around 350C whereas, that for pseudomonas strait ranges between 280 to 390C.

d) Higher temperatures (400C) greatly reduce their activity and phosphate solubilization by these micro-organisms is hampered.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Phosphate Absorbers

Some of the fungi form symbiotic association with root of certain plants and help in the absorption of phosphorus and other nutrients like Zinc, Iron, Manganese. Such fungus-root association is called Mycorrhizae.

Mainly there are two types of Mycorrhizae:

i. Ectomycorrhizae: Generally found in trees and is important for forest trees.

ii. Endomycorrhizae: They are found in majority of crop plants and play role in supply of phosphorus and other nutrients. Among these Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) are common in field crops.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Phosphate Solublizers

1. Several bacteria, particularly those belonging to genera Pseudomonas and Bacillius and fungi belonging to Penicillium and Asprergillus genera have the ability to soublize and insoluble inorganic phosphorus in soil to make it available for plants.

2. The mechanisms of solublization appear to be either acid production or chelating of metal and release of phosphorus. The inoculants of these microorganisms are called PSB (phosphate solublizing bacteria) or PSM (phosaphate solublizing microorganisms) inoculants.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Phosphate Mobilizers

1. Phosphorous differs fundamentally from nitrogen in that no natural channel exists for return of large amount of losses occurring annually. Hence the supply is inevitable shrinking and deposits are limited.

2. Rice farmers are constrained in using phosphorus owing to the high cost of phophatic fertilizers. In such situations the release of soluble phosphorus in soil and fixed phosphorus in clay minerals by microorganisms assumes great significance.

3. They may be broadly divided in two groups namely phosphate soublizing microorganisms and phosphate absorbers.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Rhizobium

1. These are gram negative soil bacteria. They form a symbiotic association with leguminous plants to form nodules in the roots of host plant. These nodules are the sites of nitrogen fixation.

2. Active nodules contain a red pigment called leghaemoglobin. This leghaemoglobin pigment regulates the oxygen diffusion within the nodule. Intensities of nitrogen fixation is directly proportional to the amount of haemoglobin present in nodules.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Azotobacter

1. These are aerobic free living N fixing bacteria. This organism widely occurs in the rhizosphere of many plants. They fix N in the rhizosphere and provide it to the plant.

2. Their inoculations are useful for cereals and non leguminous crops. Their benefits accrue form their inoculation in the form of increased grain yield and N uptake.

3. This is ascribed to N fixation, development and branching of roots, production of growth hormones like indole acetic acid, gibbeerellins and enhancement in the uptake of nitrate, ammonium phosphates, potassium iron etc.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Factors Affecting Use Efficiency of the Azospirillum

a) pH: The activity of nitrogenous enzyme during nitrogen fixation is found to be optimal at pH 7.

b) Temperature: The optimum temperature for better efficiency of Azospirillum is 320 to 350C.

c) Organic Matter: Soils having very high percentage of organic matter favors the growth and efficiency of Azospirillum.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Usefulness of Azospirillum Inoculants

a) Azospirillum inoculation helps to 20 to 30 kg N/ha.

b) Azospirillum inoculation help in increasing the grain yield of rice.

c) Azospirillum produces indole acetic (IAA), gibberellins and cytokines when inoculated on crop plants which in turn result in increased root development and enhanced seed germination.

d) Azospirillum inoculation helps in maintaining soil fertility when applied to soils.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Azospirillum

1. Azospirillum, an associative symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium has a higher nitrogen fixing potential. Azospirillum found to be associated with the root system of many grasses.

2. It helps to save 20 to kg N/ha and better vegetative growth. Azospirillum produces indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins and cytokinines when inoculated on crop plants which in turn result in increased root development. Its inoculation helps in maintaining soil fertility.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Factors Affecting the Use Efficiency of BGA in Rice

a. Water: 5 to 15 cm standing water is needed for the proper growth or formation of algal mat for efficient nitrogen fixation.

b. Sunlight: Sufficient period of sunlight is very important for nitrogen fixation by BGA,because BGA is phototrophic organism.

c. Temperature: High temperature range 350 to 400C useful for growth and nitrogen fixation by BGA.

d. pH and Salinity: BGA grows well in neutral to alkaline soils with the capacity to extract sodium upto some extent. BGA is tolerant to salt.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Blue-Green Algae

1.Blue green algae (BGA), also known as cynobacteria, are photosynthetic bacteria. The BGA promotes the growth of rice crop by supplying fixed nitrogen through exudation and microbial degradation of dead algal cells. Basically BGA is a photosynthetic nitrogen fixing agent.

2. Lowland (puddled) rice is an ideal ecosystem for their survival, growth and nitrogen fixation and therefore, BGA are suitable biofertilizers for rice crop. They form a mat on standing water in rice fields and fix atmospheric nitrogen. The color of their mat, in contrast to those of green algae, is bluish green.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Limitations of Azolla in Rice fields

a. Water in the rice field is a prerequisite for multiplication of Azolla.

b. Azolla cannot withstand desiccation, so it is not useful for upland rice.

c. The requirement of initial inoculam of Azolla is very high (500 to 1000kg/ha).

d. Due to this high application rate transportation of Azolla is very difficult.

e. High temperature inhibits the growth of Azolla. Temperature of 340C+10C in day time is detrimental for its growth.

f. Pests like pyralis and snails affect Azolla.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Factors Affecting Efficiency of Azolla

a) Water: Water is very essential for growth and survival of Azolla. Since Azolla is free floating fern, 10 to 15 cm deep water is required.

b) pH: The optimum pH of 5.0 to 7.2 is good for growth of Azolla. Its growth is fixed very well in slightly acidic to slightly alkaline soils.

c) Temperature: The high temperature inhibits the growth and nitrogen fixation of Azolla. Temperature below 50C and above 350C has adverse effect.

d) Salinity: The salinity of water has adverse effect on efficiency of Azolla.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Azolla

 

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
30
Jul

Types of Biofertilizers

 

There are various types of biofertilizers which are as follows,
 
A. Nitrogen-fixing biofertilizers 
        Azolla 
        Blue-green algae 
        Azospirillium 
        Azotobacter and 
        Rhizobium
 
B. Phosphorus mobilising biofertilizers
i) Phosphate solubilizer :
        Bacillus, 
        Pseudomonas, 
        Aspergillus niger.
 
ii) Phosphate mobilisers/ absorber:
        VAM fungi-e.g., Glomus, Gigaspora 
 

 

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Bio fertilizers

Biofertilizers can be defined as "microbial inoculants which contain live or latent cells of selected strains of nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing microoganisms used for application to seed, soil or composting areas to accelerate certain microbial processes, thus augmenting the availability of nutrients in an easily assimilable forms to plants.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
29
Jul

Description of Amauromorpha accepta metathoracica

Economic importance: Larval parasitoid.
Hosts: Yellow and white stem borer larvae.
Description
1. This larval parasitoid is a medium-sized ichneumon, red and black. Its abdominal segment I is black and reddish apico-laterally, whereas abdominal segments II to III are entirely black. Abdominal segment VII has a white apico-median transverse band. The front margin of the front wing is solid.
2. Two cross veins or recurrent veins in the front wings and an elongated median cell reaching the base of the marginal vein in the hind wings are evident.
Biology and ecology

File Courtesy: 
file:///G:/Beneficials/Scientific_name_Amauromorpha_accepta_metathoracica_Ashmead_8.htm
29
Jul

Amauromorpha accepta metathoracica (Ashmead)

Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Ichneumonidae
Genus : Amauromorpha
Species : accepta
Common Name : Ichneumon

File Courtesy: 
file:///G:/Beneficials/Scientific_name_Amauromorpha_accepta_metathoracica_Ashmead_8.htm
Photo Courtesy: 
file:///G:/Beneficials/Scientific_name_Amauromorpha_accepta_metathoracica_Ashmead_8.htm
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