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Post Harvest Management

Post Harvest Management
2
Jul

Factors to be considered while constructing the storage structure

The various factors to be considered are

1. Strength of the material to be used
2. Protection and weather
3. Protection from birds, rodents, insects and fungus.
4. Efficiency in loading and unloading
5. Provision for drying and fumigation.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Storage structures

1. In India the type of storage structure varies from area to area depending on the climatic conditions, the food grains to be stored and locally available construction material.

2. In general the existing rural storage structure is not rodent, moisture and insect proof. Their life is short and frequent repairs for the maintenance is necessary.

3. The losses due to rats, insects and moisture are considerably higher and ultimately the quality of the grain gets deteriorated.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Mites

1. Mites are not much a problem to storage grain in tropical countries.

2. But they are very common in temperate countries and their presence in food grains can be taken as definite indication of deterioration, that the food grains cannot be stored in good conditions for longer periods without causing quality deterioration.

3. These are small creatures belonging to class Arachnida. The common grains mite is known as Acarus siro.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Micro-organisms

1. The damage caused by micro-organisms in stored grains are develops excess heat, dicolouration, loss of lusture and develops characteristic musty odour.

2. Most of the storage fungi belong to Aspergillus and Pencillum group. They invade stored grains when high humidity and temperature prevails.

3. The presence of fungus in food grains can seldom be seen by the naked eye, unless the food grains have deteriorated to the extent that heating and caking have developed.

4. Some of the fungi are also capable of producing poisonous material or toxic substances known as mycotoxins.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Rodents

1. During storage the rats not only consume the grain but also contaminate the grain with their excreta.

2. Each rat is known to void 25-150 droppings and 10ml to 20ml urine per day and also constantly shed some of its coat of 5 lakh hairs.

3. These rats are also known to spread some diseases like typhus, plague and bacterial food poisoning.

4. The losses caused by rodents during storage are estimated to2.5%.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Insects

1. Thousand Species of insect pests have been found associated with attack of stored products in various parts of the world.

2. The majority of them belong to the order Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, which accounts for about 60% and 8% respectively.

3. According to the storage loss committee appointed by the Government of India, stored grain insects are responsible to cause the tune of 2.55% out of 9.33% post harvest losses.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Temperature

1. Temperature is the most important factor in the abiotic environment as it controls the rates of metabolism, growth development, general behaviour and distribution of insect pests.

2. Insect growth is inhibited at temperature below the threshold of development, the maximum lower temperature at which pests are able to develop lies between 15.5o and 18.3o C.

3. The optimum temperature for most of the insects lies between 29o C and 32 oC.

4. The temperatures also influence the development of hot spots.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
2
Jul

Moisture

1. Moisture is the critical factor in the safe storage of food grains.

2. The high moisture in food grains is responsible for insect and micro-organisms. It leads to development of hot spots and also makes them unfit for safe consumption as food or feed.

3. Insect infestation tends to increase with an increase of moisture content above 10% upto certain limit.

4. At high levels of moisture varying from 16-20% the growth of mites and micro organisms is encouraged.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
2
Jul

Factors affecting the storage of food grains

1. Moisture
2. Temperature
3. Insects
4. Rodents
5. Micro organisms
6. Mites
7. Storage structure

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Storage

1. Storage is a non-transitory, semi-permanent or long-term, containment, holding, leaving, or placement of goods or materials, usually with the intention of retrieving them at a later time.
2. It does not include the interim accumulation of a limited amount during processing, maintenance, or repair.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/storage.html
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