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Post Harvest Management

Post Harvest Management
3
Jul

Storage capacity

1. Storage capacity for Square or rectangular bin calculated by using formula;
Volume = (length x width x height) x bulk density (kg/m2)

2. Storage capacity for Tower silo with flat bottom:
Volume = (22/7 x radius x height) x bulk density (kg/m2)

3. Storage capacity for Tower silo with cone bottom:
Volume cylinder= (22/7 x radius x height) + volume of cone = (1/3 (22/7 x height)) x bulk density (kg/m2)

3
Jul

Management issues of stored grains

Management Issues
1.While the technology is simple, users sometimes still have bad experiences when the oxygen levels are higher than expected. This is often due to poor management.

The following points are important.

1. Intermittent opening and closing of godowns allows oxygen re-entry which can lead to the rapid re-infestation of some insects such as lesser grain borer which can pierce plastic liners.

2.In containers that are only partially filled containers, the large air space to grain ratio may not allow oxygen to reduce to a level that will control insects

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/grain-storage-systems/hermetic-storage-systems
3
Jul

How to use sealed storage

How to store your grain hermetically
1.Clean the seeds or grains and dry to the correct moisture content. (seed 12%, grain 14%).

2.Place seeds or grains in a clean airtight container

3.Seal the container according to the manufactures recommendation

4.When using a container with a screw top or press fitted closer use grease or silicon to seal the opening

5.When using clay pots or vessels made from pervious material, paint inside and outside of the container with paint

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/grain-storage-systems/hermetic-storage-systems
3
Jul

Why is sealed storage important?

1. Hermetically sealed grain storage system improves grain quality and seed viability because it maintains the original storage moisture content and reduces pest damage without using pesticides. 2. Seed viability can be increased from 6-12 months and head rice yields are typically increased by 10%. 3.Bird and rodent damage are also reduced.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/grain-storage-systems/hermetic-storage-systems
3
Jul

What is hermetically sealed storage?

1. Hermetically sealed storage systems place grain in an airtight container (e.g., drum or plastic bag, etc.) that stops oxygen and water movement between the outside atmosphere and the stored grain.

2.The system can use special designed PVC containers such as the Cocoon, the smaller 50kg Super bags or locally available containers made from steel, plastic or clay.

3.The size of the systems can range from 3 liters-2,000 tons hermetic storage systems can be used for paddy, brown rice, and other cereal crops such as corn and also coffee.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
3
Jul

Hermetically sealed systems

1. Hermetically sealed storage systems place grain in an airtight container (e.g., drum or plastic bag, etc.) that stops oxygen and water movement between the outside atmosphere and the stored grain.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

How to use a Super Bag?

1.The Super Bag is presently designed to store up to around 50 kg of grain
or seed. (Other similar systems can store large quantities of grain).

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Why is a Super Bag important and how does it work?

Relative to traditional storage systems, Super Bags

1. extend the germination life of seed for planting from 6 to 12 months,

2. control insect grain pests (without using chemicals),

3.Super Bags reduce the flow of both oxygen and water between the stored grains or seeds and the outside atmosphere. When properly sealed, respiration of grain and insects inside the bag reduces oxygen levels from 21% to 5%.

4.This reduction of O2 shrinks live insects to less than 1 insect/kg of grain without using insecticides – often within 10 days of sealing.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Grain Storage: The IRRI Super Bag

1. The IRRI Super Bag is a farmer-friendly storage bag that allows cereal grains and other crops (e.g., coffee)
to be safely stored for extended periods.

2.The Super bag fits as a liner inside existing storage bags
(e.g., woven polypropylene or jute bags).

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Modern storage structure

1. Bitumen/ coal tar drum
An alternate model of metal bin, low cost with similar technical performance. These bins are of 520 mm dia and 900 mm height.

2. Hapur bin/ Kothis
Circular bins of 2, 5, 7.2 and 10 q capacity and have potential to meet requirements of even large farmers.

3. Udaipur bin
These bins are made out of used coaltar drums. These can stock 1.3 q of wheat and maize. These bins can be made to have more airtight lid if the drum outlet end is given small cut to unload the bitumen.

4. Stone bin

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Bulk storage

1. At farm level grain is often stored in bulk in small outside granaries or in woven baskets or containers made out of wood, metal or concrete, which are located under or inside the house.

3. These storage capacity varieties vary in capacity from 200-1000kg.

3. Losses due to insects, rodents, and bird’s attack and moisture uptake are usually high in traditional bulk storage systems.

4. The large export mills and collection houses sometimes use metal or concrete silos.
A) These silos range in size from 20 to 2,000 ton capacity.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Bag storage

In most parts of Asia, grain is stored in 40-80kg bags made from either jute or woven plastic. Depending on the size of storage, these bags are normally formed into a stack.

When using bag storage consideration needs to be given to the following:

1.The bags are made up of jute or hessian or Mesta fibres. The jute bags are normally B-twill but some farmers use handknitted mesta(Hibiscus canabines) bags, depending upon their economic conditions .

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Earthen structures

1. This is an indoor structure made up of clay. The structure is of cylindrical type but the diameter at the middle is more than top and bottom.

2. For higher capacity structures, mud rings are used which are fabricated with either burnt or unburnt clay.

3. These are also known as Jadi, Kudir Vadai, Madeke, Mankalam etc.

4. Its capacity ranged from 1-2Qtl. and has a life span of 10-15 years even if maintained without breakage.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Wooden storage structures

1. This is mostly an indoor structure constructed with jack, banian and mango woods.

2. The structure is usually of rectangular type and consists of various trays which are placed one on top of the other. These are known as Pathayam, Kothi etc.

3. Its storage capacity ranges from ½ to 2Mt and has a life span of about 20 years.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Underground storage structures

1. This structure is mostly a dug out pit with a lining of loose straw or straw ropes or Palmyra leaves.
2. The floor of the structure is covered with loose straw and paddy husk.
3. The structure is closed with loose straw and mud. Sometimes the structures are also constructed as a part of the house with brick or stone lining.
4. These are known as Pathera, Hagevu etc. and have a storage capacity of 1-2MT. These are not permanent structures and must be renewed every year.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Masonry storage structures

1. These are known in different regions as Kotlu, Kalangiam, Kanaja, Amberkani, vaderu, kothi etc.
2. The construction of these structures is mostly using bricks or stones. But in some places the use of wood or bamboo was also found.
3. When bricks or stones are used for the construction of these structures, different materials such as mud mortar, lime mortar or cement mortar are used.
4. However, the use of cement mortar is very less, mostly the structures are rectangular type and it is constructed as a part of the house so that it can be used as a living room as well as for storage.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Bamboo/Reed storage structures

Bamboo/Reed storage structures:

1. The construction of these structures, though uniform in most of the areas, depends on the locally available reeds, in case bamboo it is expensive .

2. They are variously as Gade, Kommu, Boram, Gummi, Kudir,Bhukhari and Ponaka and have storage capacity of 1-50MT(outdoor) and 0.75-1.00MT(indoor) with a life span of about 10 years.

3. These are mostly indoor and in some cases outdoor structures.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Straw storage structures

1. These structures are made of straw ropes and varies from area to area depending upon the local economic and social conditions.
2. They have the capacity ranging from 3-20 MT and have a life of 5-6 months
3. These are mostly outdoor and in some areas indoor structures are also available.
4. These are also known as Puri, Seru, Kottai, Pura,Oliya and Murai in various regions.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Traditional Indian storage structures

Types of Traditional storage structures
1. Straw Storage Structures:
2. Bamboo/Reed storage structures:
3. Masonry storage strictures:
4. Wooden storage structures
5. Earthen structures
6. Underground storage structures:
7. Bag storage
8. Bulk storage
9. Hermatic storage

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
2
Jul

Types of Storage structures

Storage structures include Traditional and Modern structures.

File Courtesy: 
Store Grain Pests and their Management, IGSMARI – Hyderabad
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