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Post Harvest Management

Post Harvest Management
3
Jul

Post- harvest control measures for storage grain pests

Post- harvest control measures includes

i . Preventive measures ii. Curative measures

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Pre harvest control measures for storage grain pests

There are some common steps given below that need to be adopted where field infestations of storage insect pests are common.

1. Check the grain before harvest, if field infestation of insect is detected grain should be fumigated within a week after harvest/storage.

2. Clean the harvesting and threshing machines before new crop is harvested.

3. Threshing floor/ yard should be pucca, free from insect infestation and away from the vicinity of villages.

4. Clean and disinfest the transporting implements before their use.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Integrated pest management in grain storage system

Integrated pest management system will be effective only when comprehensive planning on various aspects of pre and post harvest storage of food grains with the application of appropriate preventive and curative pest control methods is done.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Rust-red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)

1. Adult Rust-red flour beetle are 3-4mm long, elongated bodies with brown colour. Antennae with distinct three segmented club, eyes partly divided by blackwardly produced side margin of head and having 3-4 facets at narrow point.

2. Rust-red flour beetle will not attack the undamaged whole kernels. It will mainly attack the milled grain products

3. Both adults and larvae feed only on the grain dust broken kernels. Infestation leads to persistent and disagreeable odours of the rice.

4. The optimum temperature for reproduction is 35°C and the relative humidity is 75%.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Saw-toothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis)

1. Identification of Saw-toothed grain beetle is a narrow flattended beetle, 2.5-3.5mm long, prothorax with six large teeth on each side and three ridges on dorsal surface. Antennae with a compact and elytra completely cover the abdomen.

2. Cosmopolitan in distribution, mainly attacks cereals and milled cereals.

3. The female lay 300 eggs in 10 weeks period.

4. The larvae are active and move about freely until fully grown, they construct a silken cocoon in which they pupate.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Secondary Insects of storage

1. Secondary insects are insects that feed from the outside of the grain even though they may chew through the outer coat and devour the inside.

2. Two of the more prevalent secondary insects are the Saw-toothed grain beetle and the Rust-red flour beetle.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica )

1. Rhyzopertha dominica is a polished dark brown to black colored insect with rough body surface.

2. Its head is inverted into a hood like triangular structure under the thorax, prothorax hood shaped covered with tubercles which are rather coarse especially in the front.

3. Female of lesser grain borer lays the eggs in mass on grain and the number ranges from 300-520.

4. The larvae may enter the kernels and develop within or they may feed externally in the flour-like dust that accumulates from the feeding of the adults and other larvae.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Angoumois Grain Moth (Sitatroga cerealella)

1. The Angoumois grain moth is small: Pale yellow brown moths, their forewings with obvious fringes of long hairs, apex sharply pointed and labial palps curved.

2. It attacks paddy, sorghum, maize, barley and wheat grain.

3. It is a primary pest causing damage very similar to that brought about weevils.

4. The female lays eggs on the surface of the grain. When the larvae mature they eat their way to the outer portion of the grain, leaving only a thin layer of the outer seed coat intact.

5. Pupation takes place just under the seed coat.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Rice Weevil/ Black weevil (Sitophilus oryzae)

1. Identification of rice weevil: 2.5-4.5mm long, with head prolonged into a long slender snout at the end of which is a pair of stout mandibles or jaws. Antennae elbowed and clubbed.

2. It is a primary pest of cereals and cosmopolitan. The rice weevil or Black weevil is the most destructive insect pest of the stored cereal grains.

3. The adult weevil lives on an average from 4-5 months, each female laying 300-400 eggs.

4. The female will lay eggs inside the grain by boring a hole inside.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Primary Insects of storage

1. Those insect species which are capable to attack sound kernels of the most of the cereal grains are generally known as primary insect pests of stored grain.

2.Primary insects which found on rice stored grains are Rice Weevil, Angoumois Grain Moth, Lesser Grain Borer etc

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Insect Species of storage pests

Different insect species found in the stored paddy/ rice are classified as

1. Primary insects
2. Secondary insects.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Storage pests

Rice storage pests
1. Insects.
2. Pathogens.
3. Rodents.
4. Birds.

These pests cause losses to the stored grains by developing through a combination of feeding, spoiling and contamination of both paddy and milled grains.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Storage Hygiene

Guidelines for hygiene in the grain storage rooms include:

1. After the storage rooms are emptied they should be cleaned, walls, crevices and wooden pallets are sprayed with an insecticide before using them again

2. Keep storage areas clean by sweeping the floor, removing cobwebs and dust, and collecting and removing any grain spills.

3. Placing rat-traps and barriers in drying and storage areas.

4. Inspect storage room regularly to keep it vermin proof.

5. Inspect the stored seeds once a week for signs of insect and moved infestation.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Cooperatives storage

1.Cooperative storage facilities are provided to the producer at cheaper rates, which reduces the storage cost.

2. These cooperatives also provide pledge loan against the produce and storage is more systematic and scientific than traditional storage.

3.Financial assistance and subsidies are provided by Government organisations/banks to build cooperative storage.

4.To meet the increasing need for storage capacity, the National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) encourages construction of storage facilities by cooperatives, particularly at rural and market level.

File Courtesy: 
http://agmarknet.nic.in/rice-paddy-profile_copy.pdf
3
Jul

State Warehousing Corporations

1.Different States have set up their own warehouses in the country. The area of operation of the State Warehousing Corporations is district places of the State.

2.The total share capital of the State Warehousing Corporations is contributed equally by the Central Warehousing Corporation and concerned State Government.

3.The SWCs are under the dual control of the State Government and the CWC.

4. At the end of December 2002, SWCs were operating 1537 warehouses in 17 States of the country with the total capacity of 201.90 lakh tonnes.

File Courtesy: 
http://agmarknet.nic.in/rice-paddy-profile_copy.pdf
3
Jul

Central Warehousing Corporation

1.CWC was established during 1957. It is the largest public warehouse operator in the country.

2. In March 2002, CWC was operating 475 warehouses in the country. It has 16 regions, covering 225 districts, with a total storage capacity of 8.91 million tonnes.

3.Apart from storage, CWC also offers services in the area of clearing and forwarding, handling and transportation, distribution, disinfestation, fumigation and other ancillary services like safety and security, insurance, standardization and documentation.

File Courtesy: 
http://agmarknet.nic.in/rice-paddy-profile_copy.pdf
3
Jul

Mandi godowns

1.Most of the paddy/rice is moved to the market after the harvest. Generally, paddy is stored both in bulk and in bags in every State, while the rice is kept in bags.

2.Most of the States and U.Ts. have enacted Agricultural Produce Marketing Regulation Acts. The APMCs constructed storage godowns in the market yards.

3. At the time of keeping produce in godown, a receipt is issued indicating the kind and weight of produce stored. The receipt is treated as negotiable instrument and is eligible for pledge finance.

File Courtesy: 
http://agmarknet.nic.in/rice-paddy-profile_copy.pdf
3
Jul

Rural godowns

1.Considering the importance of rural storage in marketing of agricultural produce, the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection initiated a Rural Godowns Scheme, in collaboration with NABARD and NCDC.

2.Its objective is to construct scientific storage godowns with allied facilities in rural areas and to establish a network of rural godowns in the States and Union Territories.

3. Upto 31-12-2002, construction of 2373 godowns were sanctioned through NABARD and NCDC with the total capacity of 36.62 lakh tones.

File Courtesy: 
http://agmarknet.nic.in/rice-paddy-profile_copy.pdf
3
Jul

Producers’ storage

1. Producers store paddy/rice in farm godown or own house in large quantity using various types of traditional and improved structures.

2. Generally, these storage containers are used for short period.

3.Different organisation/institutions developed improved structures for paddy/rice storage with various capacities like Hapur Kothi, Pusa bin, Nanda bin, PKV bin, etc.

4. Different storage structures are also used for this purpose like bricks-built rural godown, mud stone godown etc.

5.Producers also use flexible PVC sheets covering for temporary storage.

File Courtesy: 
http://agmarknet.nic.in/rice-paddy-profile_copy.pdf
3
Jul

Storage facilities

Storage facilities are different at various levels which include producer's storage, rural godowns, mandi godowns, central ware housing corporation, state ware housing corporation and cooparatives

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