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Post Harvest Management

Post Harvest Management
3
Jul

Chemical control measures for storage grain pests

Chemical control measures
a) Judicious use of residual insecticides
b) Use of fumigants

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Aeration

1. Aeration is a process of cooling of grain in bulk by passing through it large quantities of untreated air with suitable temperature and humidity so that grain in storage, remains in good condition for long period.

2. It helps in maintaining uniform storage temperature and prevents moisture migration; it also reduces the activities of storage insects and microflora.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Use of suitable storage and transport facilities

Use of suitable storage and transport facilities include.
i) Warehouse design to facilitate easy cleaning.
ii) Smooth concrete floor and dunnage.
iii) Bird, rodent and weather proof.
iv) Adequate drainage away from storage structures.
v) Surrounding area is maintained in weed free condition.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Drying of stored grains

1. Grains should be dried to 8% moisture content or below to prohibit the insect activities.
2. Drying is of two types, natural and artificial, but whatever method is followed, it should be seen that grains are dried quickly, so that they may have uniform moisture content.
3. Too rapid or over drying may damage seed, develop wrinkles, cause cracking of seed coat and destroy vitamins.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Engineering methods for control storage grain pests

Engineering methods include
a) Drying of grain
b) Use of suitable storage and transport facilities
c) Aeration

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Biological control measures for storage grain pests

1. The natural agencies such as predators, parasites and pathogens keep the population of stored product pests under check when their incidence is high.
2. Many beetles such as Tenebroides mauritanicus are facultative predators and Tribolium sps. are cannibalistic while Bracon hebetor has been recorded parasiting the larvae of lepidopterous moths and bacterial pathogen.
3. The introduction of these agencies will result in increase of contamination of food grains.
4. The biological control in combination with selective insecticides can be used for the target pest species.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Physical control measures for storage grain pests

1. Physical control measures include impact sounds and electromagnetic spectrum including infra radiation, visible light and gamma rays.

2. Electromagnetic spectrum includes a wide range of radiations which are used for pest control effectively but they are uneconomical.

3. Some of the electromagnetic spectrum are infrared, visible light, ultra violet, X-rays and gamma rays.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Cultural control measures for storage grain pests

Cultural control measures include

1. Resistant varieties to the attack of insect pests of stored grain
2. Presence of mechanical barriers like tight glumes of paddy
3. Antibiosis
4. Physical and nutritional properties of seeds
5. Oviposition

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Mechanical control measures for control of storage grain pests

Mechanical control measures include screening of grains and turning of grains.

Screening of grains: Broken, cracked, damaged and immature grains should be screened out because they promote the attack of stored grain insect pests.

Turning of grain: It has been reported that all the stages of Sitiphilus oryzae failed to develop if they are dropped once a week over 3 ft daily over 9 inches. Less frequent drop is required if a greater height is used.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Oxygen content in storage structure

1. Oxygen content plays an important role in the life of insects and mites. It also influences metabolic rate of insects.

2. An oxygen deficient atmosphere makes the insect keep their spiracles open all the time, thus, water evaporates from their bodies and subsequently desiccated and die.

3. Insects respire at the rate of 20,000 to 30,000 times more than that of the same weight of the grain. Thus O2 level will reduce to 0.1% and CO2 level will automatically be increase up to 9.0-9.5% which will be lethal to all the stages of insects.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Moisture content of the grains for control of storage grain pests

1. Moisture is the critical factor in safe storage of food grains. Grains stored with 10% moisture content avoid the attack of insect except Khapra.

2. The insects and mites survive and reproduce only if there is minimum moisture in the grains.

3. Insect needs less water content for longer life than for carrying out a normal reproductive cycle hence, if the water content is low the number of insects may not increase despite infestation.

4. The grains having higher moisture content become vulnerable to the attack of stored grains pests.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Temperature of stored grain for control of storage grain pests

1. Temperature is one of the most important factors which affects the development multiplication and distribution of insects. Insects and mites are poikilothermic.

2. Temperature ranging from 20o-30oC accelerates the development but above 42oC and below 15oC retards reproduction and development while prolonged temperature above 45oC and below 10oC may cause the death.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Ecological control of storage grain pests

The safety of stored grains from insects, mites and micro organisms largely depends on the proper management of three factors
i) Temperature
ii) Moisture content of grain
iii) Availability of Oxygen content

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Non chemical control measures of storage grain pests

Non chemical control measures include
a) Ecological control
b) Mechanical control
c) cultural control
d) Physical control
e) Biological control
f) Engineering methods

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Curative measures for storage grain pests

The existing infestation developed by insect pests in the stored grains can be wiped out by the following methods.
i) Non-chemical control measures.
ii) Chemical control measures.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Legal method for control of storage grain pests

Legal method
1. Plant quarantine (Destructive insect pest act.1914) It is a regulation required to inspect all agricultural produces before entering in to a new/ given country.
2. This lessens the risk of exotic pests becoming introduced.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Good warehouse management practices for storage grain pests

Good warehouse management practices include:
a) stacking to facilitate cleaning and fumigation
b) stock rotation
c) Separation of different commodities.
d) Separation of old and new stocks
e) Frequent sampling and inspection for insect infestation.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Grain hygiene & sanitation

Grain hygiene and sanitation is the fundamental prerequisite to reduce the number of grain damaging individual at the commencement of grain storage and it is the first line of defence against the building up of damaging population.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Hygiene or sanitation of store.

a) Before filling the grain in the store/ godown, clean it thoroughly and remove or burn away all the swept material such as dust, dirt, rubbish and webbing likely to harbour insect pests.

b) Cracks and crevices in the walls, floors and ceiling should be plastered.

c) Residual grain or other infested materials or sweepings provide harbourage for development of insect must be disposed off from storage facility 4-6 weeks prior to storing newly harvested produce it reduces the potential infestation of stock or re infestation of fumigated stocks.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

1. Preventive measures of storage grain pests

1. Preventive Measures;
Prevention is better than cure hence attacking insect pests should be prevented from entering the godowns. The preventive measures include
i. Hygiene or sanitation of store.
ii. Grain hygiene & sanitation
iii. Good warehouse management practices.
iv. Legal methods.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
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