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Post Harvest Management

Post Harvest Management
3
Jul

Phosphine fumigation for control of rodents

1. Phosphine fumigation is undertaken by using tablets and pellets.

2. These tablets and pellets release phosphine gas when they come into contact with humid air. Phosphine is toxic to all insects.

3. When insects are exposed to fumigation in a sealed environment all stages of development from the eggs, larvae, pupae to adults are killed.

4. Phosphine does not impair the grain nor leave residues that could be hazardous to the consumer when correctly applied and the grains aerated.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/storage-pests/insects
3
Jul

Use of fumigants for control of rodents

1. The careful planning and management of fumigation may be incorporated into Integrated Pest Management system so that fumigants can be used effectively and safely in combination with other control methods.

2. This will minimise the channels of insect resistance to fumigants, reduce the residue in food material and greater occupational safety and less environmental pollution.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Disadvantages of Zinc Phosphide

Disadvantages of Zinc Phosphide

1. Necessity of prebaiting,
2. Low killing around 40 – 50 %,
3. Induce bait shyness.
4. Toxic to non target species,
5. Chances of secondary poisoning are more.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.ikisan.com/Crop%20Specific/Eng/links/ap_riceRodentManagement.shtml
3
Jul

Advantages of Zinc Phosphide

1. Quick killing
2. Small quantity of chemical is required
3. Single feeding
4. Population can be brought down immediately.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.ikisan.com/Crop%20Specific/Eng/links/ap_riceRodentManagement.shtml
3
Jul

Chemical Control of Rodents

1. The control of rodents using rodenticides is commonly used.

2. There are two groups of rodenticides registered and available in our country. They are acute rodenticides (Single dose and quick acting), E.g. : Zinc phosphide. Chronic rodenticides (Multi dose and slow acting), Eg: Warfarin and, Bromodiolone.

3. Among the acute rodenticides, Zinc phosphide and Barium carbonate are registered for use. Zinc phosphide is the only acute rodenticide available to control rodents.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.ikisan.com/Crop%20Specific/Eng/links/ap_riceRodentManagement.shtml
3
Jul

Fumigation for control of rodents

1. Indigenous smoke generators can also be used effectively during the crop growth period on the field or channel bunds and farm roads to control rodents.

2. The fumigants like Aluminum phosphide is effective and widely used for the control of field rodents living in burrows.It was evaluated against Bandicota bengalensis in rice fields in Punjab, recording 66.6 % kill.

File Courtesy: 
DRR training manual
3
Jul

Poison baiting for control of rodents

1. Pre-baiting is necessary when single dose rodenticides are used.

2. Zinc phosphide is the conventional single dose rat poison. Bromodialone is the only
anticoagulant rodenticide available.

3. For baiting, zinc phosphide is mixed with groundnut oil and any carrier such as crushed wheat and broken rice grains at 2 g: 2g: 96 g by weight.

4. Bromodialone is a single dose anticoagulant and can be placed on the crown of coconut trees in rice-coconut cropping system.

File Courtesy: 
DRR training manual
3
Jul

cultural control of rodents

Cultural control measures of rodents

1. Maintain small bunds combined with large field size.

2. Control weeds within the crop and along bunds preventing the availability of alternate food

3.Synchronise planting of rice over wide areas wherever possible.

4. The bamboo bow traps are highly effective at tillering stage.

5.Installation of bird perches during crop establishment period encourages predation of rodents by owls.

File Courtesy: 
DRR training manual
3
Jul

Rodent control in rice

1. Effective rodent management can be achieved through an integrated approach using traps, acute poison baiting, fumigation and cultural control methods such as crop rotation, bund cleaning, etc., on a community approach.

File Courtesy: 
DRR training manual
3
Jul

Rodents damage at grain storage

1. Rats consume food grains about 10% of their body weight daily.
2. The storage losses in food grains due to rats in a village around Hapur was 1.36- 3.59 tonnes annually.
3. Rodents not only feed on grains but also contaminate 20 times more than what they consume. 2.5% losses in storage are caused due to rodents.
4. Rodents spoil the grain, contaminate the grains with their urine, hairs faeces and even sometimes with their own dead bodies.
5. On an average each rat drops 25-150 pellets, voids 10ml to 20 ml urine every day and constantly sheds 5 lakhs hairs.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.ikisan.com/Crop%20Specific/Eng/links/ap_riceRodentManagement.shtml
3
Jul

Rodents damage at Main field

1. Sometimes the rodents pull out the transplanted seedlings even cut them, which create gaps in the main field.

2. Generally, their activity is confined to inside field leaving 2-4 meters on all sides of the field.

3. In the initial stage, damage appears in patches and after some time, all these small patches become one big patch. Damage increases with the onset of panicle initiation and continues upto panicle emergence.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.ikisan.com/Crop%20Specific/Eng/links/ap_riceRodentManagement.shtml
3
Jul

Rodents damage at nursery stage

1. Maximum damage to nurseries takes place when the seeds are just germinated (sprouted).

2. At this stage, the nurseries are drained out and the rodents run freely inside the bed spoiling all germinated seed. Later, they also cut the seedlings 1-2 inches above the water level.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.ikisan.com/Crop%20Specific/Eng/links/ap_riceRodentManagement.shtml
3
Jul

Rodents damage at different stages

1. In India, rodents have been estimated to cause 5 to 10% losses in rice. Severity of damage varies with season, location and ecosystem.
2. Among the field crops, rice is the most vulnerable crop to rodents, losses estimated ranged from 2-90%. Rodents do not spare any variety and they attack all stages of the rice crop during all seasons.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.ikisan.com/Crop%20Specific/Eng/links/ap_riceRodentManagement.shtml
3
Jul

Types of rodents

There are different types of rats:

1. Lesser bandicoot rat: Bandicota bengalensis

2.Field mouse: Mus boodga

3. Indian gerbil: Tatera indica

4.Soft furred field rat: Rattus meltada

5.Under irrigated conditions in coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh, Bandicota bengalensis and Mus booduga are the only two rodent pests attack rice.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Rodents

1. Rodents belong to class Mammalia, order Rodentia which include rats and mices.

2. Rats belong to the family Muride.

3. Rats have been estimated to damage more than 1% of the world cereal crops and, in developing countries, the damage estimated is 3.5%.

4 .There are around 50 diseases which can be transferred to humans by rodents, including typhoid, paratyphoid, and scabies.

File Courtesy: 
STORE GRAIN PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, IGSMARI – HYDERABAD
3
Jul

Minimize damage of storage fungi

1. Little can be done to prevent or reduce the invasion of fungi in the field by crops.

2. However, the following recommendations should help prevent storage fungi problems or minimize damage by storage fungi in stored grains.

3. Harvest as soon as the moisture content allows for minimum grain damage. Adjust the harvesting equipment for minimum kernel or seed damage and maximum cleaning.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/storage-pests/fungi
3
Jul

Grain treatment to control storage fungi

1.Infected seeds can be treated by either physical or chemical treatments, or a combination of both

2.Seed borne bacteria can be treated by dry heat at 65oC for 6 days or dipping in hot water treatment at 52-55oC.

3. Seeds can also be treated with fungicides such as Dithane M-45 and Benlate at the rate of 3 grams kg-1.

4. The most effective method of treating mycotoxin problems is avoidance.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/storage-pests/fungi
3
Jul

Safe storage conditions from fungi

Grain damage by fungi will be reduced when grains and seeds are:

1. Stored with moisture content of below 13-14%.

2. There are variations in moisture content through a grain mass and fungi will grow only at suitable moisture content and not according to the average moisture content of the grain stack
Stored at temperatures below 20oC and above 40oC.

3. Cracked and broken kernels contain large amount of foreign materials - broken or cracked kernels are more likely to be contaminated and more likely to be invaded once they are in storage, than whole kernels.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/storage-pests/fungi
3
Jul

Management Options for storage fungi

Management Options for storage fungi include safe storage conditions from fungi, grain treatment, minimize damage

3
Jul

Problem with fungi in storage

1. Contamination of seed and grain with fungal organisms may result in poor germination, seedling vigour or grain quality.

2. Storage fungi usually invade grain or seed during storage and are generally not present in large quantities before harvest in the field.

3. The most common storage fungi are species of Aspergillus and Penicillium.
4.The development of fungi is influenced by the:
a) Moisture content of the stored grain
b) Temperature
c) Condition of the grain to be stored
d) Period of storage
e) Amount of insect and mite activity in the grain.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/storage-pests/fungi
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