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Essential Plant Nutrient

Essential Plant Nutrient
27
Jun

Management of Aluminium (Al) toxicity


1. On acid upland soils, Al toxicity can be corrected by liming @ 1.5 –2.0 t ha-1.
2. For correcting subsoil acidity soluble sources of Ca like gypsum and gypsum containing P fertilizers (SSP) are recommended.
3. Planting Al tolerant cultivars which exclude or immobilise Al by complexing with the help of their root exudates and accumulate selectively P, Mg and Ca.
4. Application of soil mulches, green manures, fulvic acid ameliorates phytotoxicity of Al.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
Photo Courtesy: 
ICAR-NEH.Umiam
27
Jun

Causes for Aluminium (Al) toxicity


1. Low soil pH (<5.0) as in upland acid soils causing severe deficiencies of Mg, P and Ca.
2. Upland acid soils low in SOM.
3. Acid sulphate soils, where rice is grown as upland crop for a few weeks before flooding (Thailand).

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
Photo Courtesy: 
ICAR-NEH.Umiam
27
Jun

Toxicity Symptoms if Aluminium (Al)

1. Affected leaves turn orange yellow showing interveinal chlorosis.

2. Necrosis occurs in case of severe toxicity. 3. Root tips and lateral roots are deformed and turn thick / brown increasing the risk of drought stress..

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
Photo Courtesy: 
ICAR-NEH.Umiam
27
Jun

Aluminium (Al)

1. Aluminium (Al) being the third most abundant element in earth crust is ubiquitous in all soils. 2. Solubility of Al is too low in neutral /alkali soils. However, it is present in toxic concentration in acidic soil solution with the pH <5.0. 3. Aluminium (Al) toxicity does not pose a serious problem in lowland / irrigated acid soils due to rise in pH on flooding and also due to dilution effect. 4. Al toxicity is a problem confined exclusively to rainfed upland acid soils/ acid sulphate soils before flooding.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
27
Jun

Aluminium (AL)

1. Aluminium (Al) being the third most abundant element in earth crust is ubiquitous in all soils.
2. Solubility of Al is too low in neutral /alkali soils. However, it is present in toxic concentration in acidic soil solution with the pH <5.0.
3. Aluminium (Al) toxicity does not pose a serious problem in lowland / irrigated acid soils due to rise in pH on flooding and also due to dilution effect.
4. Al toxicity is a problem confined exclusively to rainfed upland acid soils/ acid sulphate soils before flooding.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
27
Jun

Management of Silicon (Si) insufficiency

1. Judicious and balanced N application so that Si content in plant is not below critical level.
2. Recycling of rice crop residues.
3. Rice hulls (8% Si) in particular and rice straw (4-5 % Si) in general, are good sources of Si. However, Si released from these sources being very slow, suitable only as long term sources .
4. Application of rice hulls can serve as a soil amendment as well as Si source. Rice hull ash (33-40 % Si) is also a good source of Si.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
27
Jun

Causes for low Silicon (Si) content


1. Strongly weathered tropical acid soils (Oxisols) which have lost Si as a result of leaching (desilication) exhibit Si deficiency as seen in upland acid soils.
2. Degraded paddy soils in temperate (Japan, Korea and Taiwan) and sub tropical (Srilanka and Vietnam) climates show severe Si deficiency.
3. Rice grown in organic soils/peat soils (Indonesia, Malaysia and Florida- USA) with little mineral Si obviously encounters severe Si deficiency.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
Photo Courtesy: 
ICAR-NEH.Umiam
27
Jun

Symptoms of lower Silicon (Si) content

1. Leaves become soft and droopy, resulting in increased mutual shading and decreased photosynthesis.
2. Lower leaves turn yellow or brown necrotic.
3. Increased occurrence of rice blast.
4. Wilting of leaf tips.
5. Smaller panicles with high proportion of sterile spikelets.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
Photo Courtesy: 
ICAR-NEH.Umiam
27
Jun

Beneficial Roles of Silicon (Si)

1. Si has a major role in amelioration of adverse effects due to major abiotic, biotic stresses.
2. Known to counteract adverse effects resulting from toxic concentrations of Mn, Fe, Al (by improving oxidising power of rice roots).
3. Si has a role to potentiate rice plant defense against biotic stresses like rice blast,brown spot ,Sheath blight , Brown plant hopper ,mites etc. mainly by silicification of epidermal layers.
4. Implicated in increasing photosynthesis by conferring leaf erectness especially under conditions of high N supply.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
27
Jun

Silicon (Si)

1. Though Si is quantitatively the major inorganic constituent of rice, yet it is not considered an essential element.
2. Rice crop absorbs nearly 100 kg of Si for every one tonne of grain production which is five times of N.
3. Epstein a scientist, Savanth an agromomist stated that S is an agronomically essential element in proving/ sustaining rice production/ bolstering rice plant defense against pest and disease attack.
4. Presently it is known as a beneficial element.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
27
Jun

Management of Molybdenum (Mo) deficiency

1. Liming of acid soils to pH 6.5 sets right the problem (not preferable if pH change is not desirable for other purposes).
2. Dusting Na /NH4 molybdate at the rate of 100-500 g ha-1 is recommended for Mo deficient soils.
3. Foliar spraying of 0.07 –0.1 % Na /NH4 -1 molybdate as Mo is highly phloem mobile.
4. Foliar application of 0.5 % Na/ NH4 -1 molybdate for groundnut is very effective because gypsum which has been recommended as topdressing at pegging is known to depress Mo element required for BNF

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
27
Jun

Causes for Molybdenum (Mo) deficiency

1. Soil formed from parent materials low in Mo.
2. Low soil pH (due to high Fe oxides and hydroxides). Mo is the only micronutrient whose availability normally increases with the increase in soil pH.
3. High P, NH4-N (due to soil mining of Mo) and high SO4, Cu (due to antagonism) applications.
4. Good soil aeration (well drained, aerobic soil condition).

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
27
Jun

Molybdenum (Mo) Deficiency symptoms

1. Resembles N deficiency (older leaves turn chlorotic ).
2. In addition, necrotic spots are seen at leaf margins because of NO3 accumulation

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
27
Jun

Molybdenum (Mo) - Mo Functions

1. Mo is the least abundant micronutrient in the soil
2. Mo is a constituent of nitrate reductase which has a major role in upland rice receiving N03 –N.
3. It is a component of di- nitrogenise enzyme (BNF by free N fixers and legumes).
4. Other Mo containing enzymes are sulphiticoxidase/ xanthine oxidase/ dehyrogenase
5. Mo is implicated in Fe uptake.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
27
Jun

Management of Copper (Cu) toxicity

1. Use of metallophytes that accumulate metals selectively (bio/phytoremediation) where Cu toxicity is due to industrial sources like mines takes care of the problem.
2. For agricultural soils, Cu toxicity can be avoided by adopting need based application of Cu fungicides.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
27
Jun

Causes for Copper (Cu) toxicity

1. Naturally occurring Cu toxicity is rare expect in areas affected by Cu mining.
2. It may also occur in agricultural soils receiving more of Cu containing fungicides / insecticides / vineyards due to continuous use of Cu fungicides.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
27
Jun

Copper (Cu) toxicity symptoms

1. It resembles Fe deficiency (chlorosis) as Cu toxicity normally induces Fe deficiency.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
27
Jun

Management of Copper ( Cu) deficiency

1. Avoid overliming of acid soils.
2. Soil application of 10-20 kg CuSO4/ha (25% Cu) at 3 year interval is recommended for Cu deficient soils. In addition CuO (60-80% Cu), Cu frits (3.7%) and Cu chelates (Cu EDTA) have been successfully used on rice.
3. Dipping seedling roots in 1% CuSO4 suspension for an hour is also recommended for rice.
4. Foliar spray of 0.1 to 0.2% CuSO4 is also recommended in acute cases.
5. Soaking seed in 0.25% CuSO4 for 24 hours is recommended for rice in Kerala.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
27
Jun

Causes for Copper (Cu) deficiency

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
Photo Courtesy: 
ICAR-NEH.Umiam
27
Jun

Copper (Cu) Deficiency symptoms


1. Chlorotic streaks on either side of midrib followed by necrotic regions on leaf tips.
2. Deficient leaves appear bluish green
3. New leaves don't unroll.
4. Leaf tips look like needle.
5. High spikelet sterility.
6. Susceptibility to lodging because of insufficient lignin synthesis.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 11, 2004-2005, M. Narayana Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and B. Mishra, Site Specific Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice Based Cropping Systems
Photo Courtesy: 
ICAR-NEH.Umiam
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