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Nutrient Management

Nutrient Management
30
Jul

Strategies to Popularize Biofertilizers

1. The production potential and cost effectiveness of the biofertilizers can be demonstrated to the rice farmers in a convincing way so as to disseminate the technology at a faster rate. In this aspect, the block level compact frontline demonstrations can be taken up in the entire major rice growing ecosystem.

2. The All India Radio, Dooradarshan and private television channels can come forward to broadcast and telecast the talk and presentations of biofertilizers experts in local languages to reach the wider audience.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Field level constraints of Biofertilizers

1. The benefits of biofertilizer application depend on several soil and crop management aspects in field conditions.

2. Soil and climatic problems such as unfavorable pH, high temperature, drought, high nitrate, deficiency of P, Mo, Fe, Cu, Co, presence of toxic elements, competition from the native strains and compatibility with lost genotypes, lack of knowledge and availability of quality products, use of substandard inoculants, lack of proper handling or faulty inoculation methods are important field level constraints for poor response of biofertilizers in filed.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Marketing level constraints of Biofertilizers

1. Retail fertilizer dealers do not keep biofertilizers mainly because of the short shelf likfe, limited demand and lack of storage facilities.

2. These are major constraints in the availability of biofertilizers in the market. Shelf life of carrier based inoculants, which are currently being produced, is usually three months or not more than six months.

3. Further due to poor awareness among framers as well as development staff (Extension Staff) demand of biofertilizers is not increasing.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Production and distribution level constraints in Biofertilizers

1. Unavailability of appropriate and location specific strains, efficient, competitive and high N fixer with wide range of host under diverse environmental conditions, N fixing ability under high available soil N conditions, survival and persistence in soil, mobility in soil, ability to survive in moisture deficient, high temperature and adverse soil conditions etc.

a. Unavailability of good carrier material: Currently using inner materials are peat, charcoal,lignite, mixture of FYM and soil which have short life. The liquid inoculants could be better alternative.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Constraints in Biofertilizers Use

1. Production and distribution level constraints.

2. Marketing level constraints.

3. Field level constraints.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Precautions during Storage and Use of Biofertilizers

a) Biofertilizers should always be stored in a cool place or at room temperature (25° to 28°C for shelf life).

b) Biofertilizer should never come in direct contact with chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides during storage or during application.

c) The storage and use of biofertilizers should always be avoided in direct sunlight.

d) The inoculum should be used before expiry date. e) when both fungicides and insecticides are to be used, apply fungicides before insecticides application.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Economic Benefits of Biofertilizers

1. 1kg Rhizobium = 100 kg N=214.5 kg urea.

2. 1 kg Azotobacter /Azospirillum= 40 kg N=85.8 kg urea.

3. 1 kg BGA =2kg N = 4.2 kg urea.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Benefits of Biofertilizers

Biofertilizers are important for their contribution as agricultural input to sustainable rice production due to the following advantages.

1. Biofertilizers supplement chemical fertilizers as they contribute plant nutrients through biological nitrogen fixation and solubilization of fixed phosphate.

2. They are cheap so can help to reduce chemical fertilizer consumption.

3. They provide atmospheric nitrogen directly to the rice crop by way of nitrogen fixation.

4. They enhance plant growth to release of hormones, vitamins, auxins etc.

5. It is reported that 10 to 20 per cent rice yield can be increased with their use.

6. They control soil borne diseases as some of the inoculants produce antibiotics.

7. They help in proliferation and survival of beneficial microorganism of soil.

8. They improve soil properties and sustain soil fertility.

9. They help in mineralization of plant nutrients.

10. They are eco-friendly and pollution free because they contain only beneficial microorganism and not the chemicals.

Know more about Types of Bio-Fertilizers      Watch video on Bio-Fertilizer

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Method and Area of Application of Biofertilizers

Different methods are available for applications of various biofertilizers which are outlined below:

1. As seed inoculant-e.g., Rhizobium. Seed treatment is a most common method adopted for all types of inoculant. The seed treatment is effective and economic.

2. As soil inoculant-e.g., carrier based blue-green algae, Azotobacter.

3. As seed & soil inoculant - VAM fungi.

4. Carrier materials for BGA inoculum are straw, rice bran, polyurethane foam and sugarcane waste.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Critical Factors Responsible For the Effectiveness of Biofertilizers

The critical factors which are responsible for the effectiveness of a particular biofertilizer are as follows: 1.Suitability of the species to the target crop.

2. Suitability of the strain: There are specific strains of Rhizobium for different leguminous species like Cowpea, Red gram, Soybean, Alfalfa etc. Biofertilizer specific culture should be used for specific crop.

3. Identification of strains as suited to the agro eco system, particularly the soil pH moisture conditions.

4. Through research, specific strains as suited to a particular soil environmental conditions are usually identified and pure mother cultures maintained in research labs for supply to the commercial manufacturers.

5. The aseptic conditions of manufacturing, the cell count of living organism present the carrier material, purity and level of contamination.

6. The conditions of carrier material in which the culture is packed and the quality of packing material, which determine the shelf life.

7. The conditions in which the packed materials are stored, distributed and kept with farmers before it is applied. 8. Soil conditions particularly pH, organic matter content, moisture level and agronomic practices.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Factors Affecting Efficient use of Phosphate Soubilizing Biofertilizers

a) Nitrogen Sources: The phosphate solubilizing micro-organisms a good amount of rock phosphate in the presence of nitrogen sources.

b) PH: The optimum pH for maximum solubilization of inorganic phosphate has been found to be in neutral or acidc soils.

c) Temperature: The optimum activity of fungi is around 350C whereas, that for pseudomonas strait ranges between 280 to 390C.

d) Higher temperatures (400C) greatly reduce their activity and phosphate solubilization by these micro-organisms is hampered.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Phosphate Absorbers

Some of the fungi form symbiotic association with root of certain plants and help in the absorption of phosphorus and other nutrients like Zinc, Iron, Manganese. Such fungus-root association is called Mycorrhizae.

Mainly there are two types of Mycorrhizae:

i. Ectomycorrhizae: Generally found in trees and is important for forest trees.

ii. Endomycorrhizae: They are found in majority of crop plants and play role in supply of phosphorus and other nutrients. Among these Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) are common in field crops.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Phosphate Solublizers

1. Several bacteria, particularly those belonging to genera Pseudomonas and Bacillius and fungi belonging to Penicillium and Asprergillus genera have the ability to soublize and insoluble inorganic phosphorus in soil to make it available for plants.

2. The mechanisms of solublization appear to be either acid production or chelating of metal and release of phosphorus. The inoculants of these microorganisms are called PSB (phosphate solublizing bacteria) or PSM (phosaphate solublizing microorganisms) inoculants.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Phosphate Mobilizers

1. Phosphorous differs fundamentally from nitrogen in that no natural channel exists for return of large amount of losses occurring annually. Hence the supply is inevitable shrinking and deposits are limited.

2. Rice farmers are constrained in using phosphorus owing to the high cost of phophatic fertilizers. In such situations the release of soluble phosphorus in soil and fixed phosphorus in clay minerals by microorganisms assumes great significance.

3. They may be broadly divided in two groups namely phosphate soublizing microorganisms and phosphate absorbers.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Rhizobium

1. These are gram negative soil bacteria. They form a symbiotic association with leguminous plants to form nodules in the roots of host plant. These nodules are the sites of nitrogen fixation.

2. Active nodules contain a red pigment called leghaemoglobin. This leghaemoglobin pigment regulates the oxygen diffusion within the nodule. Intensities of nitrogen fixation is directly proportional to the amount of haemoglobin present in nodules.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Azotobacter

1. These are aerobic free living N fixing bacteria. This organism widely occurs in the rhizosphere of many plants. They fix N in the rhizosphere and provide it to the plant.

2. Their inoculations are useful for cereals and non leguminous crops. Their benefits accrue form their inoculation in the form of increased grain yield and N uptake.

3. This is ascribed to N fixation, development and branching of roots, production of growth hormones like indole acetic acid, gibbeerellins and enhancement in the uptake of nitrate, ammonium phosphates, potassium iron etc.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Factors Affecting Use Efficiency of the Azospirillum

a) pH: The activity of nitrogenous enzyme during nitrogen fixation is found to be optimal at pH 7.

b) Temperature: The optimum temperature for better efficiency of Azospirillum is 320 to 350C.

c) Organic Matter: Soils having very high percentage of organic matter favors the growth and efficiency of Azospirillum.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Usefulness of Azospirillum Inoculants

a) Azospirillum inoculation helps to 20 to 30 kg N/ha.

b) Azospirillum inoculation help in increasing the grain yield of rice.

c) Azospirillum produces indole acetic (IAA), gibberellins and cytokines when inoculated on crop plants which in turn result in increased root development and enhanced seed germination.

d) Azospirillum inoculation helps in maintaining soil fertility when applied to soils.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Azospirillum

1. Azospirillum, an associative symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium has a higher nitrogen fixing potential. Azospirillum found to be associated with the root system of many grasses.

2. It helps to save 20 to kg N/ha and better vegetative growth. Azospirillum produces indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins and cytokinines when inoculated on crop plants which in turn result in increased root development. Its inoculation helps in maintaining soil fertility.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
30
Jul

Factors Affecting the Use Efficiency of BGA in Rice

a. Water: 5 to 15 cm standing water is needed for the proper growth or formation of algal mat for efficient nitrogen fixation.

b. Sunlight: Sufficient period of sunlight is very important for nitrogen fixation by BGA,because BGA is phototrophic organism.

c. Temperature: High temperature range 350 to 400C useful for growth and nitrogen fixation by BGA.

d. pH and Salinity: BGA grows well in neutral to alkaline soils with the capacity to extract sodium upto some extent. BGA is tolerant to salt.

File Courtesy: 
ZARS, Mandya
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