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Crop Protection

Crop Protection
12
Jul

Host range and Nature of damage of Plant hoppers

Host range of Plant hoppers

The host range of Plant Hoppers is Leersia hexandra. (Weed)

Nature of damage of Planthoppers

1. They infest all stages of the rice crop. Both adults and nymphs suck the sap from the base of the tillers, resulting in yellowing and drying of the plants.

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Life cycle of plant hoppers

Life cycle of plant hoppers 

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
FIELD MANAGEMENT OF INSECT PESTS OF RICE - A READY RECKONER. TECHNICAL BULLETIN NO.46, DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH, RAJENDRANAGAR
12
Jul

Pest behaviour of the Brown Planthopper

Pest behavior of the Brown Planthopper 

Adult BPH are dimorphic, with fully winged macropterous and truncate winged brachyperous forms.

The macropters are potential migrants and are responsible for colonizing new fields.

After settling down on the rice plants, they produce the next generation in which most of the females are wingless and males are winged.

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Bio ecology of Planthoppers

Bio ecology of Planthoppers

1. Temperature plays a crucial role in the development of these hoppers. The threshold temperature of embryonic and postembryonic development are 10.8oC and 9.8oC respectively.

2. In warm and humid climates the planthoppers remain active and their populations fluctuate according to the availability of food, activity of the natural enemies and other environmental factors prevailing in the locality.

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Distribution of Planthoppers

Distribution of Planthoppers 

1. The brown planthopper (BPH) is common in rainfed and irrigated wetland environments during the reproductive stage of the rice plant.

2. The importance of white-backed planthopper (WBPH) as a pest has tremendously increased during the last decade both in upland and low land areas particularly where rice varieties resistant to BPH are grown.

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Taxonomy of Planthoppers

Taxonomy of Planthoppers

Class : Insecta

Order : Homoptera

Family : Delphacidae

Genus : Nilaparvata

Species : lugens

File Courtesy: 
Field management of insect pests of rice - A ready reckoner. Technical Bulletin No.46, Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar.
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Chemical control of Green leafhopper

Chemical control of Green leafhopper

  • Spray imidacloprid 200 SL @ 125 ml ha-1 or ethofenprox 10 EC @ 750 ml ha-1 or thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 100 g ha-1 or clothianidin 50 WDG 30 g ha-1 or acephate 50 WP @ 1200 g ha-1 or BPMC 50 EC @ 1000 ml ha-1 or monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1500 ml ha-1.
  • Application with power sprayer is preferable.
  • ETL of 2 insects/hill in tungro endemic areas and 10-20 insects /hill in other areas is to be followed for applying insecticides.
  • Application should be done during evening hours.
File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
12
Jul

Management and Host Plant Resistance of Green leafhopper

Management of Green leafhopper

Management of rice green leaf hopper includes

  • host plant resistance and
  • chemical methods

Host plant resistance of Green leafhopper

Here is the list of resistant rice varieties identified for Green leafhopper.

  • Vikramarya
  • Lalat
  • Khaira 
  • Nidhi
File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Host Range and Nature of damage of Green leafhopper

Host range of Green leafhopper

The host range of Green leafhopper are Leersia hexandra and some weed plants.

Nature of damage of Green leafhopper

1. The leafhoppers attack all the stages of the plant. Both adults and nymphs cause direct damage by sucking plant sap leading to stunted growth and reduced tillering.

2. At high population levels their feeding results in the drying of the plants and the infested paddy fields appear blighted. Infestation at the time of panicle emergence affects grain formation.

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA, PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr.Y.Kondala Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Life cycle of Green leafhopper

Life cycle of Green leafhopper

Rice is the preferred host of N.virescens. Females lay eggs in the wings of leaf sheath in a mass of single rows obliquely placed and touching each other. Oviposition occurs mostly during the day.

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Field management of insect pests of rice - A ready reckoner. Technical Bulletin No.46, Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar
12
Jul

Biological control of Green leafhopper

Biological control of Green leafhopper

Parasitoids: The drynids, Pseudogonatopus nudus Perkins, Haplogonatopus sp. and Ecthrodelphax fairchildii (Perkins), the strepsipteran, Elenchus sp. and mermithid, Hexamermis sp. are important nymphal/adult parasitoids of all rice hoppers reported in India. Paracentrobia andis (Ishii) is also frequently observed on GLH.

File Courtesy: 
Biological control of insect pests of rice. Technical bulletin No. 22, Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr.Kondal Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Bio-ecology of Green leafhopper

Bio-ecology of Green leafhopper

1. The leaf hopper population is influenced by monsoon rain and a definite lag period is said to exist between the peak rainfall and the peak population of GLH.

2. Pattern of population development is influenced by cropping patterns and seasonal factors.

3. The leaf hopper population reaches its peak in July- August in Assam, Manipur and Tripura.

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr.Y.Kondala Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Green Leaf Hopper Taxonomy and Distribution

Green leaf hopper taxonomy

Class : Insecta

Order : Homoptera

Family : Cicadellidae

Genus : Nephotettix

Species : virescens, nigropictus

Distribution of Green leafhopper

The states where the incidence of green leaf hopper was found severe are as follows:

File Courtesy: 
Field management of insect pests of rice - A ready reckoner. Technical Bulletin No.46, Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar.
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondala Rao
12
Jul

Leaf and Planthoppers

Leaf and Planthoppers

1. Leaf hoppers include

  • Green leaf hopper (GLH): Nephotettix virescens, N. nigropictus,
  • Zigzag leafhopper(ZLH) : Recila dorsalis

2. Plant hoppers include

  • Brown planthopper(BPH): Nilaparvata lugens Stal
  • White-backed planthopper(WBPH): Sogatella furcifera Horvath
File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
12
Jul

Cultural Control and Chemical control of Gall midgeof Gall Midge

Cultural control of Gall midge

1. Ploughing under the ratoon of previous crops can reduce infestation.

2. Control of grassy weeds and wild rice (alternate hosts) from surrounding areas can reduce Gall midge incidence.

3. Avoiding staggered planting (complete planting in an area within 3 weeks) to reduce infestation.

Chemical control of Gall midge

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
11
Jul

Management and Host Plant Resistance of Gall midge

Management of Gall midge

Management of Rice Gall Midge includes:

  • cultural,
  • host plant resistance and
  • chemical methods

Host plant resistance of Gall midge

Resistant rice varieties identified for Gall midge are:

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
11
Jul

Nature of damage of Gall midge

Nature of damage of Gall midge 

1.The chief stage of Gall midge which causes damage is the maggot. The maggot feeds on the growing tip and suppresses the leaf primordial differentiation.

2.This in turn induces the development of radial ridges from the innermost leaf primordium followed by an elongation of the leaf sheath.

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
11
Jul

Life cycle of Gall midge

Life cycle of Gall midge 

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
FIELD MANAGEMENT OF INSECT PESTS OF RICE - A READY RECKONER. TECHNICAL BULLETIN NO.46, DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH, RAJENDRANAGAR
11
Jul

Pest behavior and Host Range of Gall midge

Pest behavior of Gall midge

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
11
Jul

Bio ecology of Gall midge

Bio ecology of Gall midge 

1. Pest incidence is high during July and August when there is high rainfall during the day, which also coincides with the maximum tillering phase of the plant.

2. It is a pest of low land rice and is found in irrigated or rain fed wetland environments during the tillering stage of the rice plant. It has also been reported in upland and deep water rice.

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
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