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Crop Protection

Crop Protection
19
Jul

Host range of Rice Gundhi bug

Host range of Rice Gundhi bug

Many grasses and even dicotyledonous plants have been listed as hosts.  

Of the different grasses Echinocloa colona has been found to be a potential host for successful survival and multiplication.

The bugs have also been found to successfully multiply and migrate from early to the late flowering varieties in paddy when there is unequal ripening in the fields.  

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
19
Jul

Bio ecology and Life Cycle of Rice Gundhi bug

Bio ecology of Rice Gundhi bug

High humidity and higher and intermittent rainfall throughout the crop season are conducive for the multiplication of this pest.

Life cycle of Gundhi bug

Eggs:

  • Eggs are laid mostly in single rows, preferably towards the mid rib portion of the leaf.
  • They are reddish brown to black and the nymphs hatch in 5 to 6 days.

Nymphs:

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI, Field management of insect pests of rice - A ready reckoner. Technical Bulletin No.46, Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar
19
Jul

Distribution of Gundhi bug

Distribution of Gundhi bug

1. Three species of gundhi bug are responsible for damage to the paddy crop in India.

File Courtesy: 
Insect Pests of Rice by M. D. Pathak and Z. R. Khan
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
19
Jul

Taxonomy of Gundhi bug ( Leptocorisa oratorius)

Taxonomy of Gundhi bug ( Leptocorisa oratorius

Class: Insecta

Order : Hemiptera

Family : Alydidae

Genus : Leptocorisa

Species : acuta, oratorius

File Courtesy: 
Insect Pests of Rice by M. D. Pathak and Z. R. Khan
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
19
Jul

Chemical Control of Leaf Folder

Chemical Control of Leaf Folder

  • Spray cartap 50 WP @ 600 g ha-1 or monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 850 ml ha-1or chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 1500 ml ha-1or quinalphos 25 EC @ 2000 ml ha-1.
  • Spraying should be done only when there are 3 freshly damaged leaves per hill.
  • Severe infestation particularly to flag leaf affects grain filling resulting in yield loss.
  • Avoid excess application of carbofuran and phorate as far as possible as these will result in resurgence
File Courtesy: 
Field management of insect pests of rice - A ready reckoner. Technical Bulletin No.46, Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar.
19
Jul

Biological Control of Leaf Folder

Biological Control of Leaf Folder

1. Conservation of indifenous natural enemies through judicious use of insecticides is advocated

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Chemical Control of Leaf Folder

Chemical Control of Leaf Folder

  • Spray cartap 50 WP @ 600 g ha-1 or monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 850 ml ha-1or chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 1500 ml ha-1or quinalphos 25 EC @ 2000 ml ha-1.
  • Spraying should be done only when there are 3 freshly damaged leaves per hill.
  • Severe infestation particularly to flag leaf affects grain filling resulting in yield loss.
  • Avoid excess application of carbofuran and phorate as far as possible as these will result in resurgence
File Courtesy: 
Field management of insect pests of rice - A ready reckoner. Technical Bulletin No.46, Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar.
12
Jul

Biological Control of Leaf Folder

Biological Control of Leaf Folder 

1. Conservation of indifenous natural enemies through judicious use of insecticides is advocated

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Host plant resistance and Cultural Control of Leaf Folder

Host plant resistance of Leaf Folder

Varieties identified for Leaf Folder resistance:

TNAU LFR 831311, Cauveri, Akash, TKM-6, IET 7511, IET 9225 and IET 9797

Cultural Control of Leaf Folder

1. Early planting may help to avoid greater degrees of leaf damage.

2. Wider spacing and low usage of nitrogenous fertilizers decreases leaf damage.

File Courtesy: 
Insect Pests of Rice by M. D. Pathak and Z. R. Khan , INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU ET.AL., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
12
Jul

Management of Leaf Folder

Management of Leaf Folder 

Management of rice leaf folder includes

  • cultural,
  • host plant resistance,
  • biological and
  • chemical methods
File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Nature and symptoms for damage of leaf folder

Nature and symptoms for damage of leaf folder 

1. The larvae fold the leaves longitudinally and fasten the leaf margins with stitches of thread-like silk.

2. The larvae feed by scraping the green mesophyll resulting in linear pale white stripe damage. Starting with the late second instar, when larvae regularly roll up leaves they become solitary.

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Host range and Nature of damage of Rice Leaffolder

Host range of leaf folder 

The host range of Rice leaffolder are

  • Brachiaria mutica,
  • Echinochloa colona,
  • Eleucene coracana,
  • Leersia hexandra
  • and some weed plants.
File Courtesy: 
Insect Pests of Rice by M. D. Pathak and Z. R. Khan
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Life cycle of leaf folder

Life cycle of leaf folder 

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
FIELD MANAGEMENT OF INSECT PESTS OF RICE - A READY RECKONER. TECHNICAL BULLETIN NO.46, DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH, RAJENDRANAGAR
12
Jul

Bio-ecology of leaf folder

Bio-ecology of leaf folder 

1. Before the introduction of nitrogen responsive high yielding varieties, this pest was sporadic in most rice tracts.

2. With the expansion in rice area due to new irrigation systems, multiple rice cropping, high yielding varieties and applications of high levels of nitrogenous fertilisers the pest has now attained major pest status.

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
12
Jul

Distribution of Leaf Folder

Distribution of Leaf Folder 

Currently, three species

  • Cnaphalocrocis medinalis,
  • Marasmia patnalis and
  • M. exigua

are present in India though C. medinalis is more prevalent in the fields.

Widespread in all states but present at damaging levels in some parts of Tamilnadu

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
12
Jul

Leaf folder taxonomy ( Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee)

Leaf folder taxonomy ( Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee) 

Class : Insecta

Order : Lepidoptera

Family : Pyralidae

Genus : Cnaphalocrocis

Species : medinalis

File Courtesy: 
Insect Pests of Rice by M. D. Pathak and Z. R. Khan
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Chemical control of Planthoppers

Chemical control of Planthoppers

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Biological control of Planthoppers

Biological control of Planthoppers 

About 100 species of natural enemies have been reported on leaf as well as planthoppers.The eggs of hoppers are parasitized by about 17 parasitioids mostly belonging to 3 families viz., Mymaridae, Trichogrammatidae and Scelionidae.

1. Egg parasitoids: Anagrus sp, Gonatocerus sp., Oligosita spp.,

File Courtesy: 
Biological control of insect pests of rice. Technical bulletin No. 22, Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Cultural control of Planthoppers

Cultural control of Planthoppers

1. High dosages of nitrogenous fertilizers close spacing, and high relative humidity increases plant hopper populations.

2. Draining rice fields can be effective in reducing initial infestation levels. The field should be drained for3 - 4 days when heavy infestations occur.

3. Provide alley ways in the main field. For provision of alley ways leave 30 cm gap after every 2m planting in main field.

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
12
Jul

Management of Planthoppers

Management of Planthoppers 

Management of rice plant hoppers includes

  • cultural,
  • host plant resistance,
  • biological and
  • chemical methods

Host plant resistance of Planthoppers

File Courtesy: 
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE IN INDIA . PASALU et.al., DIRECTORATE OF RICE RESEARCH RAJENDRANAGAR, HYDERABAD-30, A.P., INDIA
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
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