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Crop Protection

Crop Protection
3
Jul

Host range of Root-knot nematodes

1. M. graminicola has a wide host range with rice being a main economically important host.

2. It was initially found on barnyard grass, Echinochloa colonum (Golden and Birchfield, 1965). and attacking several grasses, bush bean, oats, Ranunculus pusillus, Cyperus compressus L. , Panicum miliaceum L., Pennisetum typhoides Stapf and C.E. Hubb and Glycine max (L.) Merr ,

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Distribution of Root-knot nematodesDistribution of Root-knot nematodes

M. graminicola is distributed in the countries of S.E. Asia, Burma, Bangladesh, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, India, China, Philippines, Nepal and USA.

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne graminicola), Golden and Birchfield

1. In India, M. graminicola is the dominant species infecting rice. M. triticoryzae infecting both rice and wheat and also some monocot weeds is also reported in India but its occurrence is restricted to a few areas.

2. M. graminicola infestation in 1500 ha of rice area in Mandya (Karnataka, India) during kharif, 2001 was due to limited knowledge of this nematode (Prasad et al., 2001).

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Symptoms of damage of Cyst nematode

1. Browning and chlorosis of leaves, stunted plants, and early flowering by 10-13 days are common symptoms observed in the cyst nematode infected plants. 2. The roots do not show any gall formation, but turn brown at the site of infection and show reduced in vigor . 3. In advanced stages minute cysts can be seen on roots.

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Chemical control of Cyst nematode

1. Soaking rice seed in 0.2% solution of Oxamyl or Carbosulfan @ 250 ppm reduces cyst development in H oryzicola.

2. Soil application of Carbofuran or Phorate @ 1 kg a.i/ha, at 7 and 50 days after planting reduces the incidence of the nematode by 70% and increases by 28% grain yield.

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Cultural control of Cyst nematode

1. Crop rotation with non-host crops is very effective in managing cyst nematode as it has a limited host range.

2. Solarization technique was effective against H. sacchari. The temperature rise (5.750C) due to solarization unlikely to kill eggs within cysts, but may influence H. sacchari population densities by encouraging egg hatching in the absence of the host.

3. Maize, Millet and Sorghum, which are commonly cultivated in cropping systems with rice in West Africa, were poor hosts of H. sacchari.

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Host plant resistance of Cyst nematode

1. Very limited information are available on the sources of resistance in rice germplasm to cyst nematodes.

2. Out of 73 wild rice accessions screened, 15 of O. glaberrima Stevd. and 7 of O. barthii A. Chev. Were found to be resistant (Reversat and Destombes, 1998) to a Congolese population of H. sacchari.
3. Lalnakanda-41, CR 143-2-2, Ratna, Hamsa, Mtu-17 and Mtu-4 are found to be resistant to H. oryzicola (Jayaprakash and Rao, 1983).

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India DRR
3
Jul

Yield losses by Cyst nematode

1. Estimated yield losses due to H. oryzicola infestations varied from 21-42%.

2. The threshold level to cause 10% loss was 85-100 infective juveniles per plant up to 30 days.

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Interaction of Cyst nematode with other organisms and disease complexes

1. Infection of Sclerotium rolfsii in roots was enhanced in the presence of cyst nematodes while the penetration of nematode into roots and cyst formation was inhibited in the seedlings inoculated with the fungus .

2. Antagonistic interaction occurred between M. graminicola and H. oryzicola has been reported.

3. M. graminicola establishes faster and suppresses the multiplication of H. oryzicola.

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Life cycle of Cyst nematode

1. Females of H. oryzicola deposit many eggs into large egg sac attached to the vulval cone .

2. The embryonic development and the emergence of infective juveniles completes in eight days.

3. Penetration into roots takes place in one day. Duration of development was 6 days for second; 4 and 8 days for the third stage male and female and 5 and 8 days for fourth stage male and female juveniles, respectively.

4. Endoparasitic juveniles developed in 10 days into males and to white females in 20 days. Virgin females secreted a strong male attractant.

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Host range of Cyst nematode

1. H. oryzicola has limited host range with rice and banana being main hosts.

2. Weeds such as Cynodon dactylon and Brachiaria sp., are good hosts while Kyllinga monocephala Rottb., is a poor host for this nematode .

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Distribution of Cyst nematode

1. H. oryzicola is widely occurred in Kerala, recorded this nematode was recorded on banana in Goa and in paddy fields in Bankura and Burdwan in West Bengal.

2. Rice and wheat fields of Kangra valley in Himachal Pradesh also had the cyst nematode infestation.

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Cyst nematode ( Heterodera oryzicola )

1. The first reports on appearance of cyst nematode (Heterodera oryzicola) were in Kerala state During Kharif season, 1976.

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Chemical Control Rice stem nematode

1. Application of Ethoprophos, Carbofuran and Isazofos in the transplanting rice gave 0.9, 0.82 and 0.08 t/ha higher yield respectively compared to untreated fields.

2. Soil incorporation of Mocap and Carbofuran was found to be effective against the stubble borne ufra nematode (Rahman and Miah, 1989; Mondal et al., 1990).

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Cultural Control of Rice stem nematode

1. Burning of infested stubbles on community basis in an organised manner may greatly help in destroying the infection loci.

2. Preventing flood water from the river, the source of ufra nematode infection, into the fields by strengthening the bunds could be beneficial (Sein and Zan, 1977).

3. The best ways to control ufra to keep the field completely dry, plough the fallow field to destroy the infestation suitable and following crop rotation with node host plants.

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Management of Rice stem nematode

1. Management of D. angustus is difficult because of the nature of the deep water rice ecosystem.

2. Difficulties in application, contamination concerns and the low economic returns restrict nematicide use.

3.Varietal resistance and cultural management are the most effective options to manage the nematode infestation.

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Yield losses by Rice stem nematode

1. The yield loss due to D. angustus infestation may vary from year to year depending on the variety, under cultivationtime and degree of infection, and the environmental conditions prevailing during the crop season.

2. In India, yield losses due to ufra infestation were reported as 5-50% in U.P. (Singh, 1953); 10-15% in West Bengal and 30% - 100% in Assam in hot spots for this nematode (AICRPN, 1986).

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Effect of environmental factors on Rice stem nematode

1. Atmospheric temperature of 28-30°C and more than 80% relative humidity are favourable for infection, disease development and reproduction of nematodes.

2. Maximum incidence of D. angustus occurs in early sown crop and gradually decreases as the sowing is delayed.

3. Ufra nematode infection usually occurs with flood waters and tidal water helps spread of ufra nematode. The broadcast crop often suffers more from ufra infestation in comparison to transplanted rice.

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Interaction of Rice stem nematode with other organisms and disease complexes

1. The spots on the sheath of D. angustus infected plants serve as the sites for secondary invasion by Fusarium, Cladosporium and Sclerotium.

2. The nematode infected plants become susceptible to blast, sheath rot and bacterial leaf blight diseases (Voung, 1969). Rathaiah (1988) reported leaf and nodal blast in ufra infested plants in Assam.

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
3
Jul

Host-parasite relationship of Rice stem nematode

1. D. angustus feeds ectoparasitically on the inner surface of unemerged leaves, sheaths, buds and developing panicles and causes ufra disease in cultivated and wild rice, and weeds at all stages of growth.

2. The presence of viable, anhydrobiotic juveniles and adults of D. angustus on freshly harvested rice seeds may be of importance for the dissemination of this species.

3. The presence of nematode in the germ portion of the seed was also observed (Prasad and Varaprasad, 2001).

File Courtesy: 
Status of Rice Nematode Research in India, Prasad, J. S., Somasekhar, N. and Varaprasad, K.S. (2011). Approach Papers written for Rice Knowledge Management Portal.
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