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Diseases

Diseases
28
Jun

False Smut

Introduction 

1. A popular notion still being held by the farmers is that appearance of false smut is an indication of bumper yield.

2. False smut has been identified as one of the severe disease problems in hybrid rice. Most of the released hybrids were found susceptible under field condition.

File Courtesy: 
DRR training manual (Dr. Krishnaveni)
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
27
Jun

Chemical control of Bakanae

 

Chemicals which are used for the control of Foot Rot Bakanae disease: 

1. Foliar application of Benzimidazoles 

2. Seed treatment with Triforine, and Triflumizole for checking the seed borne infection of the pathogen.

3. Triflumizole, Propiconazole and Prochloraz were found to be effective against strains that are resistant to Benomyl and combination of Thiram and Benomyl.

 

File Courtesy: 
DRR training manual (Dr. krishnaveni)
27
Jun

Cultural practices of Bakanae

Cultural control measures for Foot Rot Bakanae disease are: 

1. Selection of healthy seed

2. Late sowing of early maturing varieties

3. Rotation of rice with pasture.

 

 

File Courtesy: 
DRR training manual (Dr. krishnaveni)
27
Jun

Disease cycle and Management options of Bakanae

 

Disease cycle of bakanae  

 

 

1. The disease is both seed and soil borne. The panicle infection is caused by secondary air-borne conidia and ascospores discharged from diseased plants from heading to harvest.  

2. The fungus grows intercellularly in stigma and anthers finally reaches and covers the ovary.

Management options Bakanae

File Courtesy: 
DRR training manual (Dr. krishnaveni)
27
Jun

Predisposing factors of Bakanae

 

Predisposing factors of Bakanae

 

The factors which favor the development of Foot Rot Bakanae disease: 

1. Infected seeds

2. Soil borne pathogens

3. High nitrogen application

4. Temperature 30 to 35° C

5. Wind or water that carries the spores from one plant to another

6. Seedling and tillering stages of the rice crop

File Courtesy: 
DRR training manual (Dr. Krishnaveni)
Photo Courtesy: 
DRR Training Manual
27
Jun

Symptoms of Bakanae

The symptoms of Bakane disease: 

1. The disease occurs in seed beds as well as in the main field.  Diseased seedlings are lanky, pale yellow and taller than the healthy ones.  Such seedlings die either before or after transplanting.

2. Diseased plants show brown discoloration of tissues at lower nodes facilitating an easy separation of the root system at collar region resulting foot rot symptoms. 

File Courtesy: 
DRR training manual (Dr. krishnaveni)
Photo Courtesy: 
DRR Training Manual
27
Jun

Economic Importance,Distribution and Occurrence of Bakanae

The economic importance of Foot Rot Bakanae disease: 

  • Yield losses due to this disease recorded from Haryana, West Bengal were ranged from 3.0 to 95.3 percent.

In India it has been reported to occur in 

  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Assam 
  • Haryana
  • Manipur
  • Tamil Nadu
  • Uttar Pradesh and
  • West Bengal

 

File Courtesy: 
DRR training manual (Dr. krishnaveni)
Photo Courtesy: 
DRR Training Manual
27
Jun

Introduction and History of Bakanae disease

Introduction to Bakanae ( Fusarium moniliforme)

1. Foot rot and bakanae of rice is caused by Fusarium moniliforme sheld.

2. (Gibberlla fujikuroi) occurs in almost all the rice growing areas of the country and causes substantial yield losses.

3. In India it is reported in Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Manipur, West Bengal, Assam and Haryana.

4. Yield losses due to this ranged from 3.0 to 95.3% in Haryana and West Bengal.

History of Bakanae        

File Courtesy: 
DRR training manual (Dr. Krishnaveni)
27
Jun

Chemical treatment of Sheath rot

Chemical treatment  of  Sheath rot

1. Application of carbendazim, twice at fortnightly intervals commencing from boot leaf stage would be effective.

2. Other products like Thiophanate-Methyl, Ediphenphos, Hexaconazole, Propiconazole and Mancozeb, also useful in reducing sheath rot.

3. Of the hybrids, KRH 2, NSD 2, PA 6444 and Indam 100-003 were found moderately resistant to sheath rot.

 

File Courtesy: 
DRR training manual (Dr. krishnaveni)
27
Jun

Management options of Sheath rot

The control measures for Sheath Rot disease:

 

1. Removal of infected stubbles after harvest and adopting optimum plant spacing can reduce the disease.

2. Application of potash at tillering stage is also recommended. 

3. Foliar spray of calcium sulphate and zinc sulphate was found to control sheath rot.

4. At booting stage, seed treatment and foliar spraying with Carbendazim, Edifenphos, or Mancozeb was found to reduce sheath rot.

5. Foliar spraying with Benomyl and Copper Oxychloride was also found to be effective.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org
27
Jun

Causal Organism and Pre-Disposing factors of Sheath Rot

Causal organism of Sheath rot

Sheath rot is caused by Sarocladium oryzae

Predisposing factors of Sheath rot

1. The development and severity of the disease increased with the increase with the age of host.

2. Both vertical and horizontal development of the disease was highest at flowering stage in majority of the rice cultivars. 

File Courtesy: 
DRR training manual (Dr. krishnaveni)
27
Jun

Symptoms of Sheath rot

 

Symptoms of Sheath Rot 

1. Symptoms usually develop as lesions on sheaths of lower leaves near the water line when plants are in the late tillering or early internode elongation stage of growth (approximately 10 – 15 days after flooding). 

File Courtesy: 
DRR training manual (epidemeology)
Photo Courtesy: 
DRR Training Manual (epidemeology)
27
Jun

Economic Importance of Sheath rot

Economic Importance of Sheath rot 

1. The economic importance of Sheath Rot : 

2. The Sheath rot disease appears late during the growing season of the rice crop.

3. It causes yield losses from 20% to 85% in Taiwan and 30% to 80% in Vietnam, the Philippines, and India.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org
Photo Courtesy: 
DRR Training Manual
27
Jun

Distribution and Occurrence of Sheath rot

 

The distribution and occurrence of sheath rot 

Sheath rot incited by Sarocladium oryzae, has become widespread in 

  • Andhra Pradesh, 
  • Kerala,
  • Orissa, 
  • Tamil Nadu, 
  • Bihar, 
  • West Bengal and
  • North Eastern States

 

File Courtesy: 
ADVANCES IN INTEGRATED RICE DISEASE MANAGEMENT ( Dr. krishnaveni)
27
Jun

History of Sheath rot

 

History of  Sheath rot

1. Sheath rot disease of rice was first reported to occur in India in 1978 (Agnihothrudu 1973).

2. The pathogen Sarocylindrium oryzae was revised later as Sarocladium oryzae ( Hawksworth, 1975).

3. The severe outbreaks caused considerable yield losses as in Punjab during 1978-79 

4. Nellore (1976). Seed borne internally and externally (Shajahan et al 1977).

 

File Courtesy: 
ADVANCES IN INTEGRATED RICE DISEASE MANAGEMENT ( Dr. krishnaveni)
27
Jun

Sheath Rot (Sarocladium oryzae)

The disease appears during heading to maturity stage of crop growth.

1. The pathogen generally attacks the upper most leaf sheath enclosing the young panicles.

2. Oblong or irregular spots with chocolate brown colour develop on the boot leaf sheath. Sheath rots disease of rice, caused by Sarocladium oryzae. 

3. It inflicts damage to the uppermost flagleaf sheath by infecting the sheath covering the young panicles at the booting stage.

File Courtesy: 
ADVANCES IN INTEGRATED RICE DISEASE MANAGEMENT ( Dr. krishnaveni)
Photo Courtesy: 
DRR Training Manual
27
Jun

Chemical control of Stem Rot

 

Chemicals used for the control of Stem rot disease are:

1. Fentin hydroxide sprayed at the mid-tillering stage, Thiophanate-Methyl sprayed at the time of disease initiation can reduce stem rot incidence.

2. The use of other fungicides such as Ferimzone and Validamycin A also show effectively against the fungus.

 

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org
27
Jun

Cultural control of Stem Rot

 

 The cultural control practices used for the control of Stem rot disease are: 

1. Burning straw and stubble or any crop residue after harvest or letting the straw decompose and draining the field can reduce sclerotia in the field.

2. A balanced use of fertilizer or split application with high potash and lime to increase soil pH reduces stem rot infection and increases yield.

 

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org
27
Jun

Host plant resistance of Stem Rot

Host plant resistance  of  Stem Rot    

The mechanism of host plant  for Stem rot disease 

1. The stem rot fungus may penetrate the plant directly or invade wounds. 

2. Practices that injure or stress rice plants (e.g., the use of phenoxy herbicides) have been shown to increase infection and disease development.

3. Use resistant varieties.

 

File Courtesy: 
http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r682100211.html
27
Jun

Management Options of Stem Rot

 

Management Options of Stem Rot    

Stem rot disease management options include 

  • use of resistant varieties.
  • cultural control
  • chemical control

 

File Courtesy: 
http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r682100211.html
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