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Rice based Cropping/Farming Systems

Rice based Cropping/Farming Systems
28
Jan

The Adi rice cultivation practices

In Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, Adi tribe with its sub. group, Gal/ong, Minyong, Boris, Pailibo, Ramos, Bokar etc. accounts a great majority and rice is the staple food of these tribes. Bali is the most important landrace grown by the Adi tribe, which is highly adapted and possesses multiple resistences to disease and pest. The Adi farmers follow monocropping of rice in wetlands/lowlands and mixed cropping of rice with maize, millets and many other crops injhum cultivation. Cereals, especially rice constitutes the major component of the crop mixture (Sarangi and Dey, 2005). Sequential harvesting of crops is an effective way of managing up to 35-40 crop species. Successive harvest of cereals creates additional space for the remaining crops, which also receive humus and nutrients (Mishra et al., 2004). Apart from jhum rice cultivation Adis’ practice of WRC also in lowland/valley land areas where standing water is available. All the agricultural operations from land preparation (by digging with spade) to harvest have been performed manually. In WRC, two types of cultivation are in vogue: kharif and mipun rice cultivation.

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
25
Jan

Rice growing seasons in NEH Region

The rice grown in the region thus can be classified into six classes primarily.These are Ahu or autumn rice, Sailor Kharif rice also called winter rice, Boro or spring/summer rice, Asra or shallow water rice, Bao or deep water floating rice or hill rice. The hill rice can also be furthersubdivided into mid altitude rice and high altitude rice. The various classes of rice along with the season of cultivation are indicated in Table 8.

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
25
Jan

Rice-based cropping systems followed in NE india

The agricultural practice in the region are broadly of two distinct type viz., settled farming practiced in the plains, valley/foot hills, terraced slopes and shifting cultivation in the hill slopes. Depending upon the system of farming, food habits and climatic conditions, several crops are grown in the region. Some of the frequently practiced cropping systems of shifting cultivation areas are collated in Table 7.

Table 7. Dominant rice based cropping system of NEH Region




 

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
25
Jan

Farming systems of West Garo Hills of Meghalaya

Goswami (1996) did an economic appraisal of indigenous hill farming systems (FS) in West Garo hills district of Meghalaya to identify the existing fanning systems and their transition flow to modern system of agriculture. Four types of indigenous farming systems were reported to have existed in West Garo Hill district of Meghalaya such as traditional FS, marginally modern FS, semi-modern FS and modern FS. 

In the valley lands between the hills, rice is predominantly grown. Here the agriculture system followed is like that of plains. Jhum mixture is the predominant crop component occupying 29.50% of the gross cropped area. It is grown in the hill slopes by almost all the farm households. Next to jhum mixture, autumn rice occupies a larger scale of 19.94% of gross cropped area followed by winter rice,jhum rice and spring rice: In the valley and terraced lands, rice is the principal crop as it accounts for 52.88% (all rices) of the total cropped area. Major portion of the gross cropped area (55.62%) is in jhum land, followed by valley land (26.16%) and terraced land (26.16%). Of the total production, major share is from jhum (38.64%), followed by terrace (32.42%) and valley land (28.94%) indicating the dominance of jhum in the agriculture of the district.

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
24
Jan

Dhankheti FS(Farming System) of Sikkim

With the improvement of living standard of the people of Sikkim, food habits were changed and they could no longer relish the upland rice- 'Ghaiya' and started WRC. The bench terraces are made on hill slopes up to 80% or even more. The bench terraces are watered through perennial seasonal springs tapped from higher elevation. The water from spring is collected into very small rivulet commonly known as 'kholsa' and when this kholsa is sufficiently big is known as 'khola '. The water from kholsa and khola are taken in channels to irrigate rice-transplanted terraces under the gravity from higher elevation. In short distance water flows in one direction and in long distance from both the directions. There is complete harmony and cooperation among users of water to maintain the drainage channels.

On the irrigated terraces rice seedlings, raised in nurseries, are transplanted and fields remain almost submerged throughout the growing season and drain out through a single outlet of the field. Natural courses of water are frequently not disturbed to drain out the excess water. Surface flow of water from one terrace to another is managed in such a way that suspended soil particles remain in the adjoining areas only. Water from terraces and diversion ditches is safely drained to the vegetative slopes and save damages to roads, fields and plantation crops.

The channels remain covered with the stone plates passing through paths. Terrace wall is the main factor determining terrace stability or degradation. Terrace wall failures and considerable erosion from the terrace slopes occur during high magnitude of rainstorms in monsoon (June - September). Swelling and bulge development are the characteristics of retaining walls prior to failure. Different cropping systems like  Rice – wheat,  Rice – mustard, Rice – potato, Rice – fallow, Maize - rice – mustard, Maize - rice - fallow. In Sikkim, farmers intercrop rice with traditional varieties of soybean, rice bean and black gram on bunds. Most of the area is under cultivation of local rice varieties, which yield 1-2 tlha. The popular local rice varieties are: Attey, Masseey, Sikre, Krishnabhog, Kalshanti, Bhuidhan, Darmali, Tasrey and Dutkatti.

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
Photo Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
23
Jan

Panikheti FS of Nagaland

Angami and Chakhesang tribes of Nagaland have developed  a system of irrigating terraced fields for growing rice known as panikheti (Gokhle et al, 1984). Bench terrace cultivation or panikheti in Nagaland presents an excellent example of developing bench terracing for rice cultivation by using steep slopes (up to 100% or more) and rocky lands with availability of very small quantity of soil. The topsoil is maintained in the terraced bed while constructing terraces annually.


Di
sposal of excess water and application of irrigation water is managed by allowing water to flow from one terrace to another by providing opening in the ridge bund. In the terraced fields, agricultural operations start in December and January with digging of field with the help of spade. While digging, soils turn on residue of rice plant. Puddling starts in the month of April. After that water is allowed to enter into the terrace. By the first week of June, the terraces will be full of water. In the same month, seedlings are transplanted from nurseries in puddle lands. By the end of September, the paddy plants are bunched together. This prevents the plants from being damaged by the winds or by the weight of grains. This also reduces the loss of grains during harvest and makes the harvest easier. The components of the system are Terraces, Fish culture, Water management, Land management etc.Three types of terraced fields are found in Kohima district of Nagaland viz., i). Dzutse - water supply to these fields is regular throughout the year. Water not needed in one terrace is conveyed to another terrace through channels; ii). Khuso - water supply is through channels from streams and iii). Vakhra - fields are similar to khuso but involvement of labour is more.

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
Photo Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
21
Jan

Zabo FS(Farming System) of Nagaland

Zabo is an indigenous FS practiced in Nagaland, which  has a combination of forest, agriculture and animal husbandry with well- founded conservation base, soil erosion control, water resources development' and management and preservation of. The system is also called as 'ruza'. The place of origin of Zabo FS seems to be Kikruma village located at an altitude of 1,270 m in Phek districtof Nagaland inhabited by Chakesang tribe. Rice is the staple food of the Chakesang tribe.  ‘Zabo' meaning impounding water. The Zabo FS comprises of protected forest land on hilltop, well planned water harvesting tank at the middle and cattle yard and rice fields towards foothills. In case, a suitable location for water storage is not available, the run off water from the upper catchment is taken directly to rice fields which act as water source for rice crop. Special technique for seepage controlling the plots is followed, which include thorough puddling and use of paddy husks on shoulder bunds. In Zabo FS, all the agricultural operations like hoeing, puddling, ramming in rice fields are done manually with small hand tools, wooden sticks etc., which are time consuming and labour intensive. The seed rate is 60 kg/ha and transplanting time is June. The variety is grown at a spacing of 12 x 12 cm and two irrigations from the storage point (as supplement) maintaining 10 cm water depth in terraces are applied. The yield of the rice variety is about 3-4 tlha. Most of the farmers practice paddy-cum-fish culture technique as in Apatani FS and derive about 50-60 kg of fish per ha as an additional output. This system of farming is common on individually owned land of about 2.5 ha area. The various components of Zabo FS are Forest land, Water harvesting system, Cattle shed and Agriculture land.

By and large the Zabo FS is a organic farming without using any chemical fertilizers and plant protection chemicals. On the whole, the Zabo FS comprises of inherent and traditional agricultural and forestry land use, in built water harvesting system with well-founded conservation bases.

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region published in Rice knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
Photo Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region published in Rice knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
21
Jan

Transplanted in narrow valley lands

The most prevalent method of rice cultivation is the transplanted rice in valley lands in which generally the moisture regime is much higher and it is possible to grow transplanted rice in these situations.

The NE region is substantially rich in indigenous techniques and systems developed by the tribal farmers using their ingenuity and skill. Research and development efforts are, therefore, needed to work out and implement viable alternatives to the existing traditional FS, which may be environmentally safe, sustainable productive and acceptable to the farmers (Borthakur et al., 1983). Shifting cultivation is the main traditional FS of the region. In addition to shifting cuItivation, some other traditional FS exist in the region. Important among them are rice-based farming system of Apatanis of Arunachal Pradesh, Adi rice cultivation Zabo FS of Nagaland,  Panikheti in Nagaland, Dhan kheti in Sikkim and high altitude Monpa FS in Kameng Himalaya.

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region published in Rice knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
21
Jan

Transplanted on wet terraces

In the states of Nagaland, Sikkim and Manipur the rice is cultivated on carefully designed wet terraces. The water coming from the upstream and highlands is tamed and made to stand behind the bunds. The flow of water is regulated and it is carefully carried  from one terrace to the other and finally drained off in the downstream channels leading to streams or nallas. In this system of rice cultivation, there is no control on the movement of nutrients with water (Kannan et al., 1999). Zabo farming system of Nagaland and Apatanis of Arunachal Pradesh are example of a better-managed resource systems but not the well-managed system. Because these systems, due to extremely high rainfall result into excessively high runoff with disturbances in the soil.

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region published in Rice knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
21
Jan

Direct seeded rainfed on level bench terraces

In this case, the rice is cultivated on dry terraces of different shapes and sizes as rain fed crop. There is no careful planning and scientific design of water conveyance and drainage systems; rather the irrigation is applied from one terrace to the other except a few well developed system of rice farming in the region.

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region published in Rice knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
21
Jan

Direct seeded, rainfed in upland (on steep slopes)

The patches of land are cleared in the hills and vegetation is burnt to make plots for rice cultivation on steep hill slopes. The paddy seeds are directly broad casted on steep hill slopes, which germinate with moisture availability. The crop is mainly grown as rain fed without any control on water application. Provisions, however, are made for safe removal of excess water from the fields by providing drainage channels along the slopes.

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region published in Rice knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
21
Jan

Rice and rice based farming systems of North Eastern region

The rice farming situations in the North Eastern Hills are as follows:

1. Direct seeded, rain fed in upland (on steep slopes),

2. Direct seeded rain fed on level bench terraces,

3. Transplanted on wet terraces; and

4. Transplanted in valley lands.

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region
6
Aug

Transplanting

(i) Dates of Transplanting : Time of transplanting is a single factor which influences rice yield substantially. For getting maximum yield of rice and for the timely vacation of the field for sowing wheat and other crops adopt the following transplanting schedule :

 Second fortnight of June : PR 122, PR 121, PR 118, PR 116, PR 114, PR 113 and PR 111

 Under late sown conditions : PR 115

(ii) Age of Seedlings at Transplanting : Start uprooting the nursery when the seedlings become 25 to 30 days old. As the transplanting proceeds, use seedlings from the same nursery sown in May. Seedlings older than 30 days upto 55 days give better yield under late transplanting for long duration varieties. However, in short duration varieties seedlings of 25-30 days should be preferred.

(iii) Uprooting of Seedlings : irrigate the nursery before uprooting, Wash the seedlings in water to remove mud.

(iv) Method of Transplanting :

(a) Flat puddled transplanting : Transplant seedlings in lines at 20 x 15 cm (33 hills/sq m) for normal and 15 x 15 cm (44 hills/sq m) for the late transplanting. Put 2 seedlings per hill. The seedlings should be transplanted upright and about 2-3 cm deep. This practice ensures good establishment of seedlings and early tillering, which are essential for good tiller development and synchronous flowering.

(b) Bed transplanting : Transplant 30 days old seedlings on the middle of the slopes of beds prepared with wheat bed planter on heavy textured sols. After field preparation (without puddling), apply basal dose of fertilizer and prepare beds. Irrigate the furrows and immediately transplant seedlings by maintaining a plant to plant distance of 9 cm to ensure 33 seedlings/m2. During the first 15 days after transplanting rrigation water should be allowed to pass over the beds once in 24 hours. Threreafter apply irrigation in furrows only two days after

the ponded water has infiltrated into the soil. Every care should be taken that field does not develop cracks in the furrows. In this way about 25 per cent of total applied irrigation water can be saved without affecting the grain yield. For controlling weeds spray Nominee Gold/washout 10 SC (bispyribac) at 120 ml per acre in 150 litres of water as post emergence‘, 20-25 days after transplanting. Hand pulling of weeds can be done, if needed. Follow other cultural practices as recommended for flat puddled transplanted rice.

File Courtesy: 
PAU, Ludhiana
6
Aug

Unpuddled direct seeded rice

Direct sowing of rice can also be practised with the adoption of following points to make this technology a success:

1. Sow rice by direct seeding onlyin medium to heavy soils and its cultivation is not successful on light textured soils due to severe iron deficiency

2. Proper control of weeds is very essential for raising a healthy crop of direct seeded rice

3. Ensure its proper establishment by sowing it with rice drill

4. For direct sowing , sow during first fortnight of June by raising 8-10kg seed per acre with tractor drill at 20 cm row spacing. For controlling weeds apply Stomp 30 EC(pendimethalin @ 1.0 litre/acre with in two days of sowing followed by Nominee Gold/Taarak/Wash out/Macho 10SC(bispyribac)100ml per acre/Segment 50 DF(azimsulfuron@16g per acre at 30-35 days after sowing. Spray these herbicides uniformly by mixing them in 150-200 litres of water per acre and use flat fan/flood jet nozzle for spray. Use Nominee Gold 10 SC when the crop is infested with swank and paddy mothas and Segment 50 DF can be used only if paddy mothas are present in the field. Sowing of short duration varieties should be preferred.Apply 60kg nitrogen (130kg Urea) per acre in four equal splitsat two, four,seven and tenweeks after sowing. Phosphorus and potash should be applied only if the soil tests showdeficiency of these nutrients.To fulfill the water need of the crop, apply irrigation at 5 days intervaldepending upon the soil type. The interval may be adjusted with rainfall. Stop irrigation 10 days before harvesting. Depending upon the soil type, there will be saving of 10-15 percent irrigationwater in direct seeded rice as compared to transplanted rice

5. For direct seeding PR 115 is the most suitable variety

File Courtesy: 
Package of practices for crops of Punjab: PAU Ludhiana
24
Jan

Commercialization of Rice-Fish Farming System

 Model of CRRI-A Scuccess Story by D.P Sinhababu and G.A.K Kumar 


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5
Aug

Rice based cropping pattern

The crop and cropping intensity of Chhattisgarh is depend on soil types and its moisture retention capacity of soils in rainfed farming and follow suitable cropping system in irrigated areas. Based on crop area, the major cropping pattern in three agro-climatic zones of Chhattisgarh is as follows.
Chhattisgarh Plain Zones
Rice- Fallow
Rice- Utera (lathyrus/ linseed)
Rice- Linseed / chickpea/ lentil/ wheat/ mustard/ safflower
Rice- Rice
Bastar Plateau zone
Rice- fallow
Rice- Fallow/ chickpea/ linseed/ vegetables
Rice – chickpea/ linseed/ vegetables
Northern hills zone
Rice- fallow

File Courtesy: 
IGKV, Raipur
4
Aug

Farming System IV (modern)

The components of this Farming System IV are as follows:

 Settled cultivation in the valley lands between the two hills, bullock ploughing under rainfed condition, various types of agricultural crops are grown .

 Rearing of livestock like cattle, pig, goat and poultry.

  Horticultural plantation.

 Cultivation of annual and seasonal crops like cereals, pulses, oilseeds and vegetable with improved technology on the terraces on hill slopes made by the Government.

 Plantation crops like rubber.

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
4
Aug

Farming System III (semi-modern)

Five components are found to have existed in this Farming System III .

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
4
Aug

Farming System I (Traditional) of Meghalaya

This Farming System I was found to have three components:

  • Settled cultivation in the valley lands between the two hills, bullock ploughing under rainfed condition, various types of agricultural crops are grown .
  • Shifting cultivation in the hill slopes. A single crop of rice or maize and mixed crops of rice + maize + cotton + tapioca +ginger are grown.
  • Rearing of livestock like cattle, pig, goat and poultry.
File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
4
Aug

Farming System 2 (Marginally Modern)

The components of this Farming System are:

  • Settled cultivation in the valley lands between the two hills, bullock ploughing under rainfed condition, various types of agricultural crops are grown.
  • Shifting cultivation in the hill slopes. A single crop of rice or maize and mixed crops of rice + maize + cotton + tapioca +ginger are grown.
  • Rearing oflivestock like cattle, pig, goat and poultry.
  • Growing of horticultural crops like areca nut, banana, orange and pineapple in hill slopes.

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
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