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25
Aug

Tillage Patterns

An optimal tillage pattern reduces the time spent in non-productive work. One of the most important objectives of a tillage pattern is to minimize the number of turns and maximize the length of the tillage runs. There are several patterns that can be used when tilling a field.
These are 1. Circuitous pattern.
2. Up and back or headland pattern
3. Land system

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
25
Aug

Upland Tillage

1. Upland tillage is undertaken in locations where crops are grown in aerobic soil conditions. This means that the soils are non-puddled soils and there is no freestanding water in the fields. Soil moisture levels are critical when ploughing in an upland-farming situation.
2. If the soil is too dry it will not till easily, the power requirement will increase and in clay soils large clods may be formed. In clay soils these large clods may cause problems when trying to decrease ped size to create a seedbed.

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
25
Aug

Secondary Tillage

Secondary tillage is any working completed after primary tillage and is undertaken for
• Reducing ped size,
• Weed control,
• Incorporation of fertilizers,
• Puddling and
• Leveling soil surface.

Secondary workings are usually shallower and less aggressive than primary tillage. In the animal powered system, the second working is normally undertaken with the moldboard plough when the field is fully saturated. The final workings are then completed using peg tooth harrows to puddle the soil and leave the surface level and ready for planting

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
25
Aug

Primary Tillage

1. Primary tillage is the first working after the last harvest and normally the most aggressive tillage operation.
2. It is normally undertaken when the soil is wet enough to allow the field to be ploughed and strong enough to give reasonable levels of traction.
3. This can be immediately after the crop harvest or at the beginning of the next wet season. When there is sufficient power available some soil types are ploughed dry.
The objectives of primary tillage are:
1. Till the soil to attain a reasonable depth (10-15cm) with varying clod sizes.

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
25
Aug

The objectives of Tillage

• Decrease ped or clod size
• Remove, incorporate or modify plant residue
• Manage soil water (both wetting and drying)
• Control weeds
• Mix and incorporate soil amendments such as lime and basal fertilizer
• Control or destroy insects, their eggs, larvae and breeding places
• Reduce wind and water erosion by leaving a rough surface.

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
25
Aug

The components of land preparation

The aim of land preparation is

1.To place the soil in the best physical condition for crop growth

2. To ensure that the soil surface is left level Land preparation is a combination of tillage practices that places the soil in the best physical condition for plant establishment and crop growth. To attain this condition

3. Soil must be tilled to a depth so plants can develop a root system which will physically support the plant and also allow the extraction of sufficient moisture and nutrients so yield potentials can be realized

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
25
Aug

Land Preparation

There are five parts in understanding good land preparation. These components are an understanding of the:
1. Role of tillage and land leveling in land preparation
2. Reasons why good land preparation is important
3. Different systems and equipment that are used for tillage
4. Power requirements for tillage of different soil types using different equipment
5. Basic setting up and operating equipment

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
25
Aug

Location specific Nutrient management to rice crop

Manure: Apply 5 tones FYM or Compost or 5 quintal Karanj or Neem cack per ha in direct seeded rice or before 15 days after transplanting. Karanj or Neem cack are also effective in controlling nematodes in field. Integrated Nutrient Management for Rice: INM approach is required to ensure higher yield. As for as possible, apply fertilizer as per soil test recommendation. If it is not followed, adopt blanket recommendation as follows in Jharkhand state.

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BAU,Ranchi
22
Aug

Advantages of ZT over Normal Transplanting

ZTDSR lowers production costs due to lack of any kind of land preparation;
• Timely sowing of rice can be done;
• Promising technology under less rainfall situation, if prevails during crop growth period;
• ZT crop suffers less transplantation shock;
• The crop matures 8-10 days earlier;
• It experiences less weed pressure due to herbicide use;
• Savings in irrigation water use & seed; Savings in Labour & Time; Savings in Fuel;
• Maintains soil health
• There is an improved productivity as well as profit

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
22
Aug

Weed Management in ZT Rice

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CRRI
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CRRI
22
Aug

Fertilizer Management in ZT Rice

There are three steps to be followed during fertilizer management in Zero Tillage Rice
• BASAL DOSE: N: P2O5: K2O @ 80: 40: 40 kg ha-1 (20.5 kg IFFCO 10: 26: 26 and 1.5 kg urea) to be applied simultaneously with seeds of rice.
• TOP DRESSING: 12 kg urea at 15-20 DAS & 6 kg urea at PI for 1.0 bigha area.
• Sesbania co-culture: 2 kg bigha-1 to be sown simultaneously with the seeds of rice.
Fertilizer Management in Normal Transplanted Plots
• BASAL: ¼ N + Full P2O5 + ¾ K2O
• TOP DRESSING: ½ N at 15-20 DAT & rest ¼ N + ¼ K2O at Panicle Initiation

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
22
Aug

Seed Treatment

The seed should be treated with 2.5 g Carbendazim/ kg seed before sowing.
TREATMENTS TO BE FOLLOWED
• T1: DSR + Pre-emergence herbicide application immediately after sowing in the evening + Split application of N
• T2: DSR + Pre-emergence herbicide application immediately after sowing in the evening + Sesbania co-culture & killing by 2,4-D salt at 25 DAS + Split application of N
• T3: Normal transplanted paddy & normal fertilizer application

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
22
Aug

Time of Sowing and Seed Rate

• It is advisable to start Zero Tillage DSR at 8-10 days before onset of monsoon (1st fortnight of June) to facilitate timely crop establishment before rains start in full-swing.
• The seed rate recommended is 15-16 kg acre-1 for bold grain rice varieties & 11-12 kg acre-1 for fine grain rice varieties.

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
22
Aug

What is zero tillage?

Before proceeding to the package of practices in Zero Tillage, let us understand what is Zero Tillage?
• Zero tillage (ZT) implies planting crops in previously unprepared soil. It is also known as zero till, no till or direct planting/ sowing.
• Zero Tillage technology in direct seeded rice (DSR) excludes any sorts of tillage operation.
• Zero tillage in rice-wheat systems ranges from surface seeding to planting with seed drills drawn by four-wheel tractors.

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
22
Aug

Grain Storage

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CRRI
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CRRI
22
Aug

Harvesting & Threshing

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CRRI
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
22
Aug

Insect Management

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CRRI
22
Aug

Disease management

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CRRI
22
Aug

Water management

Water Management in the main field is as follows:
• A thin film of water is to be maintained for initial 30 days and the water level is to be increased to 4-5 cm later when the crop reaches at maximum tillering (MT) stage.
• Water is to be drained for 4-5 days after MT stage so that emergence of late tillers can be suppressed.
• Complete draining out of water is to be done at 10 days before harvest.

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
22
Aug

Nutrient management

Nutrient Management in the main field follows:
• A recommended dose of 5 t FYM ha-1 is to be applied at 2 weeks before transplanting.
• Fertilizers are to be applied at 80:40:40 (kharif) and 150:75:75 (boro) kg ha-1, giving 25 % N, full dose of P2O5 & 75% K2O as basal at the day before transplanting.
• 50% N in is to be applied at tillering and the remaining 25% N & 25% K2O at panicle initiation stage.

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
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