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General

16
Apr

Spacing depends on several factors

  • With excellent cultural practices, the spacing may be slightly wider, say 20x15 cms but under sub-normal conditions, the spacing should be slightly narrower, say 15x10 cms.
  • Under good management and adequate nitrogen levels, the optimum spacing for varieties should be around 20x10 cms both for kharif and rabi crops.

Adopt proper spacing & ensure adequate plant population

File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
15
Apr

Crop Establishment

  • At 2-5 leaf stage (20-25 days age) , uproot the nursery, trim the tips of seedlings and transplant.
  • Crop establishment is a very important part and hence utmost care is needed to ensure good crop establishment.
  • Synchronous planting should be followed which enables efficient use of irrigation, and reduces
  • incidence of pests.
  • Seedlings should be uproooted from the nursery without damaging the roots and with minimal
  • shock.
  • Make sure that the seedlings are not mixed with weed seedlings.
  • Line transplanting should be followed as it helps in better crop growth and intercultural operations.
  • Generally recommended spacing is 15x10 or 20x10 cm.
  • Proper spacing should be followed between two seedlings to ensure that competition for nutrients
  • will not be there
  • In case of Direct Seeding, sowing should be done after proper puddling and levelling the land.
  • Direct sowing is practiced in areas with lower rainfall or areas with water and labor scarcity.



File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

NURSERY MANAGEMENT

  • Nursery should be prepared nearer to the mainfield so as to minimize the shock during transplanting.
  • Utmost care should be taken while preparing the nursery as it is the place where rice seedlings grow and establish themselves.
  • Prepare the type of nursery based on your resources such as water, type of soil etc eg : Wet bed method is practiced in areas of water abundance and Dry bed method is practiced in areas of less water and where the soil is loamy or clayey.
  • Appropriate seed rate (15-20 kg/ha) should be used based on the variety/ hybrid selected. Farmers use very high seed rate, which is not required and wasteful.
  • For good preparation of your nursery, Plough the soil thoroughly 3 to 4 times and level it perfectly. Make channels for irrigation water and drainage.
  • Incorporate one tonne compost/FYM per 1000 m2 bed during last ploughing/puddling.
  • Broadcast the sprouted seed 5kg /100 sq.mt of soil. Make sure the seeds are free from weed seeds. For 200 sq.mt of nursery bed apply 2kg. Nitrogen (1kg at the time of broadcasting the seed and another after 12 to 14 days) 1kg P2O5 and 1kg Potash. In cold prone areas apply double dose.
  • Allow it to dry for some time and give slight irrigation at first leaf stage.
  • Weeding should be done once in 15-20 days as it helps seedlings grow effectively without competition for nutrients, water etc.
  • If zinc deficiency is noticed spray 2 g ZnSO4 dissolved in 1 liter of water. In case of dry nursery if Iron deficiency is noticed spray 20 g / 1 lt. (2%) ferrous sulphate solution.
  • Protect your Nursery against bird damage of seed by netting or taking colour ribbons.
  • Apply Carbofuran 3 G granules 10 days after broadcasting the seed per cent of nursery @160g or Monocrotophos 1.6ml or Chloropyriphos @ 2.0 ml per liter of water. Apply Carbofuran 3 G granules @ 160 g per 40 sq.mt of nursery week days before uprooting the nursery.
  • Seedlings should be uprooted with soil and transplanted immediately so as to minimse the shock to the seedlings. See to it that the time gap between uprooting the seedlings and transplanting is less.
File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

“Raise healthy nursery for healthy crop”

The seed rate naturally influences the growth of the seedlings. Thin sowing gives strong and tillered seedlings, whereas thick sowing results in thin and tall seedlings without tillers.

Thin sowing in nurseries is always better and it will produce strong and sturdy seedlings, which can withstand adverse climatic conditions better and produce better yields. Therefore, 40 to 60 grams of seed per square metre should be sown in the nursery beds. About 500 square metre area of nursery is sufficient to transplant one hectare area. In case of late sowing of nursery, the nursery area should be increased to 750-1000 square metre.

File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

Varietal selection

  • Select good quality & high density seed of a variety/ hybrid suitable to the location/season.
  • Varieties should be selected based on the environment and the season in which they are to be grown.
  • The most suitable variety is the one that best meets the farmer and the consumer’s needs. It may not always give the highest yield and the choice will be influenced by availability of water, either from rain or irrigation, soil type, field elevation and whether the rice will be sold or consumed at home.
  • Select varieties resistant to pests and diseases, if the area is prone to endemic diseases/ pests. In case, there are problem soils such as acidic or salinity, varieties which are suitable for specific soils (say saline tolerant varieties) should be selected.
  • Varieties which are already grown in the area and having good yield records should be selected. In case new varieties/ hybrids are to be grown, enquire about their performance in FLDs or on-farm trials.
  • We should go for new varieties initially on trial basis, and if it works out well it can be cultivated in the whole area.

                                                                 



File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
Photo Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

“Plant pure, clean and healthy seeds”

Good quality seed reduces the required seed rate, produces strong healthy seedlings which results in a more uniform crop and higher yields.

Good seed is
  • clean - no stones or soil, weed seed,
  • pure - only seeds from one variety,
  • healthy - full big grains, same color, no cracks or spots

File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

SEEDS AND VARIETAL SELECTION

  • Select good quality seeds which are free from seed borne pests, diseases and weeds.
  • Select seeds which are bold, uniform in size and filled completely.
  • Seeds should be soaked in salt water and remove immature and chaffy seeds. Select only bold seeds and wash thoroughly with clean water for 2 - 3 times and dry under shade.
  • If seeds are farmer grown it should undergo germination test before using for sowing.
  • Select seeds which have good germination rate (> 85%).
  • Get seeds from reliable sources like government agencies or certified private companies, Agricultural universities, KVK’s,Agricultural research stations etc.,
  • Before seeds are sown they should be treated with either
  • fungicides like Carbondazim, Dithane M 45 @ 2.5 g/kg of seed (or) Cartap @ 2.5 g/kg of seed.
  • They can also be treated with bio control agents like Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 gm per kg of seed etc. 
File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

“Levelled fields give the best yields”

A well prepared and leveled field gives a uniform,healthy crop that can compete with weeds, uses less water and gives higher yields at a lower cost.
A well prepared field has:
  • Many small soil clods to give good seed ‘soil contact’
  • No weeds
  • Harder layer at 10 cm to stop water percolation
  • Level and smooth surface after puddling
  • Well-constructed bunds
File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

Land Preparation

  • Land preparation is done by ploughing, harrowing, and levelling the field to make it suitable for crop establishment.
  • Ploughing should be done 3-4 weeks prior to sowing.
  • Plough your field upto 12-15 cms deep and make sure the weeds and the stubbles get incorporated in the soil and get decomposed. This is necessary to avoid the self sown seeds to grow and become admixtures.
  • Draft animals, such as oxen, 2-wheel tractors or 4-wheel tractors or rotavator can all be used for ploughing the land effectively.
  • Implements used for ploughing are mouldboard plough, disc plough, sub- soiler etc.
  • After ploughing, harrowing the field should be done twice, with one week gap between the two. First harrowing should be done after 1 week of ploughing. The second harrowing should be done across the first harrowing.
  • Implements used for harrowing are Spike tooth harrow, Chain harrow, Disc harrow, Inter-cultivating harrow.
  • Generally rice fields are first flooded with water before tillage. This tillage of flooded soil is referred to as puddling. Puddling is very efficient in clay soils that form deep cracks penetrating the plough pan at about 15 to 20 cm soil depth during the period of soil drying before land preparation.
  • Land should be levelled after ploughing and harrowing is done so as to avoid undulating topography which leads to uneven distribution of water and others. Levelling with laser leveler helps in saving water and ensure uniform crop growth.
  • The land should be submerged in 2-5 cms of standing water so that pudding is done and decomposition of organic matter occurs soon.
  • Bunds should be prepared and cleaned thoroughly to check weed growth as they harbour pests and diseases.
  • Bunds should be compacted to prevent seepage, and properly maintained at 15 cm height x 20 cm width to prevent rat burrowing.
  • Once you complete all these activities, you can now go for transplanting / direct seeding.
  • A fallow period of at least a month from harvest to establishment of the next crop has to be there. This can break the pest cycle and facilitate the success of crop management practices.



File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

Crop Calendar

A crop calendar is a picture of your rice growing season: crop production from the fallow, land preparation, crop establishment and maintenance through to harvest and storage. By using a crop calendar, farm activities are better planned, done at the right time and it is easier to organize labor and obtain inputs such as seed and fertilizer. Better planning will decrease input costs and increase yields.

To create a crop calendar, consider following steps

1. Determine the best date to plant.
2. Determine the time the variety takes from planting to harvest (short duration <120, medium duration 120-140, long duration >140 days plus).
3. Mark on the calendar the date of planting and when each other operation needs to be done. (Ploughing, weeding, fertilizing, harvesting).
“Using a cropping calendar improves the timeliness and reduces
 
File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

Six Principles for Rice POPs

Principle 1: Rice Integrated Crop Management (ICM)
Rice growing should be seen as a complete production system and integrated management is essential as each single practice and output interacts with other practices and affects a range of outputs of management that ultimately combine to give the yield, grain quality and environmental sustainability.
 
Principle 2: Inputs, Outputs and Outcomes
Differentiating between practices and the results is very essential. Management inputs (the practices or what the farmer needs to do) are different from the management outputs (the results of these practices or what the farmer is trying to achieve); the management of inputs must achieve optimum level of outputs at all growth stages and management areas to achieve optimum yields and other outcomes such as reduced cost of cultivation.
 
Principle 3: Key Outputs
Identifying the most important factors in package of practices is essential. Some practices / outputs of practices are more important than others in managing the rice crop to achieve improved yield and other outcomes. These factors may vary from place to place.
 
Principle 4: Key Checks
Using the key outputs (such as optimum level of tillers) as targets of management practices and subsequently, as benchmarks for effectively evaluating and checking the outputs at every stage of crop growth.
 
Principle 5: Changing farmers’ practices
Change in farmers’ practices may not occur overnight. A farmer identifying good practices is a precursor to change. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the practices must be identified and recognized by the farmer before these can be changed; and yield, grain quality, and environmental outcomes can be improved.
 
Principle 6: Farmer group discussions
Encourage farmers to discuss about the contents of this book to facilitate collaborative learning with others. Create an environment where every farmer feels that these practices are not thrusted on him, rather these are the cafeteria of practices from which he can choose what is best for him.
 
File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
30
Jan

Direct seeded rice (DSR):

Under this practices rice can be directly seeded either through dry or wet (pre germinated) seeding by drilling the seed into a fine seedbed at a depth of 2–3 cm. Wet seeding requires levelled fields to be harrowed and then flooded. The field is left for 12–24 hours after puddling, and then germinated seeds (48–72 hours) are sown by drum seeder. ndeed, weed management is a critical factor in direct seeding. Timely application of herbicides and one or two hand weeding provide effective control.

A field survey of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh study revealed that in 67% cases farmers obtained either equal or higher yields as compared with the conventional puddled transplanted rice. The marginal yield penalties in the balance 33% cases were mainly due to inexperience of the farmers (seeding in inappropriate soil moisture, deeper seed placement, delayed and improper use of herbicide molecules). The study also stated that comparative to puddled transplanted rice, the savings in DSR was in the range of US$ 70-102 ha-1. The tillage induced savings were mainly through reduced cost in land preparation (77%), irrigation water (15%) and labour (8%).Fig.1



 Input cost in Puddled Transplanting                                                Saving in DSR

Fig.1 Source:- Rice- Wheat Consortium Technical Bulletin

File Courtesy: 
Subhash Babu, Raghavendra Singh and S.K. Das, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
29
Jan

New techniques for sustainable production of rice

  • Resource Conserving Technologies

  • Conservation agriculture is a broad term and it includes mainly three conserving techniques that conserve resources
  • Soil cover, particularly through retention of crop residues on the soil surface
  • Sensible, profitable crop rotation; and
  • A minimum level of soil disturbance

A practice that conserves resources and ensures their optimal utilization and enhances resource or input use-efficiency is called resource conserving techniques (RCTs). Mainly these techniques includes zero or minimum tillage (save fuel and time), direct seeding, permanent or semi permanent residue cover, new varieties that use nitrogen more efficiently, laser assisted land levelling, system of rice intensification (SRI), direct seeded rice (DSR), precision farming, use of leaf colour chart (LCC) and integrated crop management (ICM).

File Courtesy: 
Subhash Babu, Raghavendra Singh and S.K. Das, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
29
Jan

Major challenges for sustaining rice productivity

  • Soil degradation
  • Decline water table
  • Inadequate plant population
  • Drop in soil organic matter
  • Nitrate pollution in ground water
  • Emergence of multiple nutrient deficiencies
  • Appearance of new weed biotypes and resistance to applied herbicides
  • Cultivation of rice on light-textured soil
  • Inadequate and imbalanced use of fertilizer
  • Weather aberration
File Courtesy: 
Subhash Babu, Raghavendra Singh and S.K. Das, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
29
Jan

Strategies and modern techniques to enhance rice production in NER

Out of the present deficiency of 1.6 million tones of food grains in the region, 1.0 million tonne deficiency is in rice alone. Main strategy to increase rice production should be through:

  • Developing altitude specific varieties and packages in a participatory mode involving farmers in selection process of such varieties to achieve an average production of 2.2 tfha from the present level of l.8 t/ha from 3.5 million ha of rice area i.e. a gain of 1.4 million tones.
  • Introducing double cropping in at least 25 - 30% of valley land areas of l.5 million ha. i.e. a gain of l.12 million tones.
  • Promoting irrigation facilities by tapping both surface and ground water resources. Present irrigation potential is only 0.88 mhm which needs to be increased to at least 1.6 mhm by tapping the water resources of 42.5 mhm in the region.
  • Breeder seed production for the developed varieties by the concerned institute/ universities, easy access to such seeds need to be ensured. Encouragement and training to youth groups and SHGs for seed production and delivery.
  • In addition to the above, rice varieties for the shifting cultivation areas should be developed to achieve an yield of 1.2 t/ha from the present level of 0.7 t/ha i.e. a gain of 0.8 million tones of rice particularly of glutinous type.
  • Protection and characterization of existing and new germplasm and appending the information to already available database for sharing the information at regional and national level as well as for future use. This is needed to develop a statewise bioresource inventory by the year 2015 and categorise risk level of various germplasm.
  • Molecular characterization of important germplasm for protection of IPR issues and to find out gene flow pattern in highly endangered species of agricultural importance.
  • Establishment of a community rice bio-parks to provide information to general public about conservation needs, judicious and diversified utilization and open up avenues for employment.
  • Demarcation of around 50% jhum areas for organic rice production based on the availability of infrastructure like road, power, storage facilities, marketing, credit facilities and government support.
  • Initially 25% of jhum land per annum may be brought under organic cultivation for three years and remaining 25% in equal proportion in next 2 years. In this way 50% of jhum areas will be covered by 2020. This would result in 15-20% increase in production with 20-30% increase in farm income by 2025.
File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
28
Jan

Socio-economic and cultural constraints in Rice production

  • Poor economic condition of the shifting cultivators in hills and small and marginal farmers of the plains
  • Lack of skill, work force, attention and management
  • Low level of understanding of the improved farming technology
File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
28
Jan

Environmental constraints in Rice production

  • Noncongenial rugged terrain of the mountain ecosystem for development of settled cultivation
  • Regular occurrence of flood in rainy season in Assam
  • Occasional drought occurrence in hills during winter season
  • Smaller and rainfed dry terraces in hills
  • Micro-agroclimatic conditions of the flat valley lands with higher soil moisture
File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
28
Jan

Implementation constraints in Rice production

  • Lack of integration and coordination between different line departments of different states in the promotion of integrated development strategies
  • Inadequate extension and training support services with little client oriented or participatory extension activities
  • Top-down approach of agricultural programmes without considering the needs of the farmers
  • Lack of on-farm, multidisciplinary and development oriented programmes
  • Lack of integration of research, extension and education in agricultural developmental    programmes
  •  Lack of adequate service facilities such as credit, input supply and marketing of produce
  • Dependent attitude of farmers on government sponsored subsidized schemes
  • Transport and communication bottleneck in remote areas

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
28
Jan

Technical constraints in Rice production

  • High level of diversity in the upland farming systems which do not allow the uniform package of practices for agricultural  development.
  • Limited opportunities for expanding arable farming to maintain the fragile hill ecosystem
  • Difficulty in promoting mechanized agriculture on sloping land
  • Limited availability or access to improved varieties of seeds planting material 
  • High dependency of hill farmers on rice cultivation as staple food
  • Increasing population density in the upland areas resulting  in more pressure on natural resources necessitating a shorter fallow cycles of jhumming, encroachment on forest land extending agriculture on steep sloping lands

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
28
Jan

Constraints in rice production

1. Technical constraints

2.Environmental constraints

3. Socio-economic and cultural constraints

4.  Implementation constraints

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
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