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Crop Protection with vernacular Names

Crop Protection with vernacular Names
30
Jul

Host range of Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice

Species of wild rice such as Oryza spontanea, O. perennis balunga, O. nivara, O. breviligulata, O. glaberrima, and Leersia hexandra Sw. (southern cutgrass) are alternate hosts of the disease.

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CRRI
30
Jul

Causal Organism and Predisposing factors for Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice

The bacteria causing the disease X. oryzae pv.oryzicola occur as rods. They are 1.2 x 0.3-0.5 µm in dimension. They are single, occasionally in pairs but not in chains. The bacteria have no spores and no capsules. They move with the aid of a single polar flagellum. They are Gram-negative and aerobic and can grow favourably at 28 °C.
The bacterial colonies on nutrient agar are pale yellow, circular, smooth, convex, and viscid and have an entire margin. Their growth on slant is filiform. Growth in nutrient broth is moderate with a surface ring growth without a definite pellicle.

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30
Jul

Rice root-knot nematode

 

Scientific name : Meloidogyne graminicola.

 Local name :

Damage of Rice root-knot nematode:

1. Nematode damages seedlings in nursery and in upland rice.

2. Larvae enter the roots and cause gall formation which disturbs the uptake of water and nutrients.

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30
Jul

Symptoms of Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice

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30
Jul

Ufra nematode

 

Scientific name : Ditylenchus angustus.

Local name :

Damage of Ufra nematode:

1. Chlorotic streaks are noticed on the upper leaves, 2-3 month after planting.

2. Yellowing and mottling of the leaves with contorted margin, blackening of internodes, crinkled ear head with sterile spikelet and sometimes 3-4 ear heads in a single leaf sheath may be seen.

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CRRI
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CRRI
30
Jul

Economic importance of Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice

1. Under favourable weather conditions particularly typhoons and rain storms, the disease spread through entire fields, all the upper leaves become infected and turn brown resulting in heavy damage.
2. Losses as high as 32.3% in 1000-grain weight due to BLS were reported. At three disease intensities, the estimated yield losses were 8.3%, 13.5%, and 17.1% in the wet season and 1.5%, 5.9%, and 2.5% during the dry season.

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CRRI
30
Jul

History, distribution and occurrence of Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice

1. The disease was first described as stripe disease by Reinking in 1918 from the Philippines. Identification and description of the causal organism was given by Fang et al from China in 1957.
2. In India, it was first reported by Srivastava et al (1967) who noticed its occurrence in U.P, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Bihar.
3. Shekhawat and Srivastav (1971, 1972) Chattopadhyaya and Mukharji (1968) observed it in Mysore, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Orissa.

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30
Jul

Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice

1. Bacterial Leaf Streak (BLS) initited by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzicola is important bacterial disease next to preventing the realisation of high yielding potential offered by intensive cultivation.
2. Though it is less devastating than Blb, it causes substantial yield losses and is a major constraint in production.

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CRRI
30
Jul

White–tip nematode

 

Scientific name : Aphelenchoides besseyi

Local name :

Damage of White–tip nematode:

1. The nematode feeds on the growing apical bud inside the leaf whorl, so the tip of the emerging leaf becomes whitish or whip like called white tip during nursery or early tillering stage.

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CRRI
30
Jul

White–tip nematode

 

Scientific name : Aphelenchoides besseyi

Local name :

Damage of White–tip nematode:

1. The nematode feeds on the growing apical bud inside the leaf whorl, so the tip of the emerging leaf becomes whitish or whip like called white tip during nursery or early tillering stage.

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CRRI
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CRRI
30
Jul

Rice Nematodes

There are three major nematodes in rice crop

1. White–tip nematode.

2. Ufra nematode.

3. Rice root-knot nematode.

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30
Jul

Rice field crab

 

Scientific name : Paratelphusa hydrodromus

Local name :

Damage of Rice field crab:

1. The seedlings are cut by crabs at ground level into small bits which are carried to the holes for feeding.

2. In older plants outer sheaths are cut open and the inner portions are consumed.

3. In an attacked field bits of leaves and stems can be seen floating in water.

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CRRI
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CRRI
30
Jul

Field Rat

 

Scientific name : Bandicota bengalensis

Local name :

Damage of Field rat:

1. At early stage, rat cuts tillers and the affected area is seen as circular patches.

2. The rat revisits the same area next night and spreads the damage.

3. At later stage, it cuts ear heads and carries them to its burrow in which up to 2 kg of hoarded grain can be noticed.

Control of Field rat:

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30
Jul

Paddy mite

Scientific name : Oligonychus oryzae

Local name :

Damage of Paddy mite:

Infested leaves become white between the veins and eventually get shredded with the veins remaining green.

Control of Paddy mite:

Foliar spray of dicofol 18EC@ 2.5lit./ha or profenophos 50EC @ 1 lit./ha or monocrotophos 36EC @ 1.3 lit./ha just after initial symptom check the damage due to mite.

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CRRI
30
Jul

Tarsonemid mite

 

Scientific name : Steneotarsonemus spinki

Local name :

Damage of Tarsonemid mite:

1. This mite is found between stem and leaf sheath in colonies.

2. It causes sterility and deterioration of rice grain quality along with pathogenic fungi.

3. It damages parenchmatous tissues of rice plant and reduce the amount of nutrients to the developing grain resulting in reduction of grain weight and size.

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CRRI
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CRRI
30
Jul

Rice Storage Insects

 

i. Angoumois grain moth: Sitotroga cerealella Olivier.

 ii. Rice weevil: Sitophilus oryzae L.

iii. Rice moth: Corcyra cephalonica Stainton.

  iv. Red flour beetle: Tribolium castaneum Herbst.

v. Lesser grain borer: Rhizopertha dominica Fabr.

Damage of storage insects:

1. High grain moisture above 14% enhances infestation by rice store grain pest.

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CRRI
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CRRI
30
Jul

Rice mealy bug

 

Scientific name : Brevennia rehi

Local name :

Damage of Rice mealy bug:

Both nymph and adult of mealy bug suck the sap by remaining concealed within leaf sheath of the plant which causes stunted growth and yellowish curled leaves in sunken oval or round patches of a normal crop and the plants may either die or put forth distorted panicles with chaffy grains.

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CRRI
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CRRI
30
Jul

Rice Thrips

 

Scientific name : Baliothrips biformis

Local name :

Damage of Rice thrips:

1. This is essentially a pest of nurseries causing severe damage.

2. The larvae and adults lacerate the tender leaves and suck the plant sap causing rolling and drying of the leaf tips.

3. In severe infestation, the seedlings are killed.

Control of Rice thrips:

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CRRI
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CRRI
30
Jul

Termite

 

Scientific name : Microtermes obesi .

Local name :

Damage of Termite: 

1. Termite feeding on the roots cause yellowing older leaves of plants, then wilting and finally collapsing of the plant.

2. Damaged plants can easily be pulled out by hand. Termite attack on the germinating seeds render to loss of plant stand and under severe infestation resowing is required.

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30
Jul

Rice case worm

 

Scientific name: Nymphula depunctalis

Local name:

Damage of Rice case worm:

1. Larvae cut off the leaf tips and prepare a cylindrical tube like case and dwell inside it and often float in water.

2. They move with their cases and feed on leaves by scraping patches of green tissues sometime leaving only the white epidermis.

Control of Rice case worm:

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CRRI
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CRRI
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