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Crop Protection with vernacular Names

Crop Protection with vernacular Names
1
Aug

Management of blast disease

A) Chemical control
1. Seeds should be soaked for 12 hrs in 0.1 % Carbendazim 50 WP (Bavistin, Derosol or JKstein) prior to sowing of nursery or broadcasting for upland rice.
2. Root dip treatment to the seedlings immediately after uprooting is recommended for 12 hrs in 0.1 % Carbendazim 50 WP (Bavistin, Derosol or JKstein) in low land crop.

File Courtesy: 
Rice Research Station, Kaul (Kaithal), Haryana
1
Aug

Symptoms of blast disease

1. Typical leaf lesions are spindle shaped, usually with reddish yellow margin; grey in the centre.
2. Leaves of susceptible varieties may be killed. The fungus may also attack the stems at nodes which turn dark brown to blackish in colour and tend to break easily.
3. Lesions may also occur on panicle neck. The infected necks turn blackish and break over. Neck blast results in few or no seeds in the panicle.

File Courtesy: 
Rice Research Station, Kaul (Kaithal), Haryana
Photo Courtesy: 
Rice Research Station, Kaul (Kaithal), Haryana
1
Aug

Blast disease

1. Causal organism -Magnaportha grisea is endemic in north eastern states.
2. This disease affects the crop at all the growth stages viz., nursery, tillering and flowering.
3. The yield loss ranges from 36 -50% depending upon the variety and environmental conditions

File Courtesy: 
Rice Research Station, Kaul (Kaithal), Haryana
31
Jul

Bacterial leaf streak (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola)

1. Small translucent streaks appear in the interveinal areas of the leaf.
2. The streaks gradually enlarge and turn reddish, when the plants near maturity.

File Courtesy: 
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana
31
Jul

Bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae)

Greenish-yellow strips appear along the leaf margins and extend both lengthwise and breadthwise. The leaf starts drying from the tip, becomes white in severe cases and dries up completely. The disease sometimes attacks the freshly transplanted seedlings which start wilting and in a few days the whole clump dries up. The bacterium perpetuates through seed, rice straw, and roots of non-host plants during the off-season. In order to mitigate the losses, adopt the following measures :

File Courtesy: 
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana
31
Jul

Diseases of Punjab

1. Bacterial leaf blight
2. Bacterial leaf streak
3. Blast
4. Brown leaf spot
5. Sheath blight
6. Sheath rot
7. Stem rot
8. False smut
9. Bunt (also called Kernel Smut

File Courtesy: 
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana
31
Jul

Practices to increase activities of natural enemies

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
31
Jul

Parasitoids of Leaf folder:

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
31
Jul

Parasitoids of Gall midge

1. The egg-larval parasitoid, Platygaster oryzae (Cameron) has been recognized as one of the important parasitoids of GM and parasitism reached up to 93% during October-November.
2. Mummies of P. oryzae were found in the upper portion of the silver shoots in the rainy months and in lower portion in dry months.
3. P. oryzae and Platygaster sp. occur in fairly large number in the field, but parasitism occurs late in the crop season.

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
31
Jul

Parasitoids of Brown planthopper (BPH)

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
31
Jul

Parasitoids of Yellow Stemborer (YSB)

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
31
Jul

What is a parasites

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CRRI
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
30
Jul

Management of Bacterial Leaf Blight of Rice

No single effective control measure is available. Therefore, integrated measures are suggested.
Use of resistant cultivars
Use of resistant cultivars is the most economic and environment safe strategy for the management of bacterial blight disease. Although several BB R genes have been identified and characterized, the effectiveness of these genes varies due to difference in virulence profile of the pathogen in different geographical regions. In India, a large no. of rice varieties has been released showing resistance /tolerance to bacterial blight.
Chemical Control

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
30
Jul

Predisposing factors for Bacterial Leaf Blight of Rice

  • Lateritic and alluvial soil favour more bacterial blight diseases. 
  • Water logging condition encourages disease development. 
  • Excessive use of N fertilizers from tillering stage to maximum tillering stage encourages disease development. 
  • Growing of the crop under shade favours disease development.
  • Pruning of leaves at the time of transplanting favours disease development.

 

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
30
Jul

Causal organism of Bacterial Leaf Blight of Rice

The causal organism is the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Ishiyama) Swings et al. According to the new classification system, it has been placed in:
Phylum : Proteobacteria
Class : Gyammaproteobacteria
Order : Xanthomonadales
Family : Xanthomonadaceae

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
30
Jul

Symptoms of Bacterial Leaf Blight of Rice

• Water soaked lesions move from tip downwards on the edges of leaves.

• Gradually symptoms turn into yellow and straw coloured stripes with wavy margins.

• In early morning in humid areas yellowish, opaque, turbid drops of bacterial ooze may be seen.

• In Kresek (wilt) phase, leaves roll completely, droop and plants die completely.

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
30
Jul

Economic Importance of Bacterial Leaf Blight of Rice

1. The extent of yield loss depends on the growth stages of the crop at which it is infected, the level of susceptiblility of the cultivar, season, climatic condition and level of nitrogen fretilizer applied.

2. The damage may be due to partial or total blighting of the leaves or complete wilting of the affected tillers leading to unfilled grains.

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
30
Jul

History, occurrence and distribution of Bacterial Leaf Blight of Rice

1. Bacterial leaf blight of rice caused by Xoo is one of the most destructive diseases of rice in majority of the rice growing countries especially in Asia.

2. Though the disease has been known in Japan since 1884, its bacterial nature was established in 1922. Subsequently the disease was reported from most of the rice growing countries.

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
30
Jul

Bacterial Leaf Blight of Rice

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
30
Jul

Management options of Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice

i. Varietal Resistance
Grow resistant varieties like Bala, Padma, Sabarmati and moderately resistant varieties like Krishna, Jamuna etc. Use certified seeds from the reliable sources.
ii. Cultural practices
 The disease can be controlled by proper application of fertilizers and proper planting spacing.
 Practicing field sanitation is important. Ratoons, straws and volunteer seedlings left after harvest can be destroyed to minimize the initial inoculum at the beginning of the season. Providing good drainage system especially in seedbeds can also manage this disease.

File Courtesy: 
CRRI
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