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Andhra Pradesh

Welcome to Andhra Pradesh
19
Nov

Harvesting & Storage

IX. Harvesting & storage 

• Harvesting the crop should be done at the right time. Reaping too early or too late affects yield and seed quality. Timely harvest and threshing will ensure good grain quality, high market value, and consumer acceptance.
• The field should be drained 1 week prior to harvesting.
• Harvesting should be done when at least 75% of the grains are matured. If the crop is harvested without proper maturity it leads to loss of viability of grains.
• The harvested material should be dried in the field for 2-3 days.
• The grain should be free from iner t material after threshing and winnowing. The winnowed grains should be sun dried until the moisture content reaches less than 13%.
• Both over drying and under drying will lead to breakage of the grain during processing. High moister content during storage leads to loss of viability due to increased grain respiration and attack of storage insects and pests. Storing paddy
• Paddy seed is sun dried for 2-3 days continuously and then stored in gunny bags on indigenously made 4-5 feet stand to prevent pest infestation.
• Paddy seed is stored in small containers with bamboo called as ‘butta’ (in Telugu). The container is filled with paddy seed and covered with straw and then closed with cow dung paste.
• Seed for consumption purpose are stored in big size storage structure called ‘Gadhi’ with a capacity of 100-150 kunchas (300-450 kgs) of paddy seed.
• The grains should be stored in a place which is free from storage pests.
• They should not be stored in areas with less moisture content.
• The storage structure should not have perforations or holes as it helps the pests to invade. The storage place should have good aeration.
• Control of storage pests like moth and weevil infestation in paddy should be done .For every 50 kg of grain storage, 200 gram salt is placed. In a bag of 100 kg paddy, 200gram of salt is added after filling 50 kg and the remaining 50 kg of grain is filled by addition of 200 gram salt for every 50 kgs grain to control the moth and weevil infestation in paddy.

19
Nov

Pest & Disease Management

 VIII. Pest & disease management

 

Effective pest & disease management is required as it helps in producing better quality grains and better yields. Major Pests of Rice in Andhra Pradesh are


1. Stemborer

 

2. Gallmidge

 

3. Leaf folder

 

4. Hispa

 

5. Leaf mite

 

6. BPH/WBPH

 

7. Panicle mite

 Major Diseases of Rice in Andhra Pradesh are;

 

1. Sheath blight

 

2. Blast

 

3. BLB

 

4. Stem rot

 

5. Red stripe

 

6. Sheath rot

 

7. False smut
 




Pest control during panicle and booting stage

PESTS

CROP  STAGE

CHEMICAL CONTROL

BPH/ WBPH


Panicle initiation to booting stage


Spray acephate @ or monocrotophos @ 2.2 ml or ethofenprox @ 2.0 ml or fenobucarb @ 2.0 ml or imidacloprid @ 0.25 ml or thiamethoxam @ or Buprofuzin 1.6ml per litre of water.

Stem borer


Panicle initiation to booting stage


Car tap hydrochloride 50 WP or acephate or profenophos 2.0 ml /litre of water (or) apply car taphydrochloride 4G @ 8 kg/acre when the adult moths/egg masses @ one/ sq.m are noticed in the field.

Leaf folder


Panicle initiation to booting stage


Spray car taphydrochloride or acephate or profenophos 2.0 ml /litre of water

Panicle mite


Panicle initiation to booting stage


Spray profenophos 2.0 ml or dicofol 5.0 ml/litre of water

BPH/ WBPH


Post flowering


Spray acephate @ or monocrotophos @ 2.2 ml or ethofenprox @ 2.0 ml or fenobucarb @ 2.0 ml or imidacloprid @ 0.25 ml or thiamethoxam @ or Buprofuzin 1.6ml per litre of water

Cut worm


Post flowering


dichlorvos @  1.0 ml + endosulfan @  2.0 ml (or) dichlorovos 1.0 ml +

chlorpyriphos 2.5 ml/litre of water


Disease management

 

Disease

 

Time of application

 

Fungicide

 

Dose

No. of applications &

time interval

 

Sheath blight

 

At   the  initiation of  the  disease. Normally around  45  days  after transplanting in kharif and 30 days after transplanting in rabi


 

Hexaconazole 5EC Validamycin 3L Propiconazole25  EC


 

@ 2ml/l

@ 2ml/l

@ 1ml/l


 

 sprays   at   15-day interval

 

Blast

a) Leaf blast

 

At the initiation of the disease under favourable weather conditions


 

Tricyclazole 75 WP/ Isoprothiolane 40 EC


 

@ 0.6g/ml

@ 1.5 ml/l


 

2 to 3 sprays depending on the severity  & spread of the disease at 15 days interval

 

b) Neck blast

 

i) Under disease favourable weather conditions just before panicle emergence stage


 

Tricyclazole 75 WP/ Isoprothiolane 40 EC


 

@ 0.6g/ml

@ 1.5 ml/l


 

One spray

 

ii) On appearance of the disease

 

Tricyclazole 75WP/ Isoprothiolane 40 EC


 

@ 0.6g/ml

@1.5 ml/l


 

One spray


 

 

BLB

 

No chemical available. Management is mainly through rationalization of nitrogenous fer tilizer application


 

---


 

---


 

---

 

Stem rot


 

At  the appearance of the disease (Normally from maximum tillering to crop maturity stage)


 

Validamycin 3L / Hexaconazole 5EC / Propiconazole 25 EC / Carbendazim 50 WP/ Benomyl 50 WP


 

@ 2ml/l

@ 1ml

@ 2ml/l

@ 1g/l

@ 1 g/l


 

2 to 4 sprays at 10-15 days interval depending how much early the disease has been noticed

 




 

Red stripe

 

At  the appearance of the disease from advanced boot leaf  to crop maturity stage

 

Carbendazim 50 WP

 

@ 1g/l

 

One spray

 

Sheath rot

 

At the appearance of the disease or at panicle emergence stage


 

Carbendazim 50WP


 

@ 1g/l


 

One spray

 

False smut


 

At flowering  stage


 

Propiconazole 25 EC/ Copper       oxycloride

50WP /  Carbendazim

50WP


 

1.0ml/l

2.0g/l

1.0g/l


 

One     spray      during evening hours


 

19
Nov

Weed Management

Weed Management 

Three types of weeds are found in rice fields in Andhra Pradesh i)   Grasses : Monocots, two ranked leaves

ii)   Sedges : Similar to grasses but have 3 ranked and triangular solid stems. They frequently have modified rhizomes adopted for storage and for propagation. Sedges belong to the family cyperaceae, a large family of monocotyledonous plants distinguished chiefly by having active solid stems and 3 ranked stem leaves.
 

GRASSES SEDGES BROADLEAVED WEEDS
Echinochloa colonum,Echinochloa crussgelli, cynodon sps panicum sps Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus iria, Fimbristylis miliaceae Eclipta alba, Commelina bengalensis, Ammonia baccifera
Control of weeds
• Flooded condition of rice field reduces weed intensity.
• Transplanting of rice seedlings in weed free fields.
• Hand weeding is done whenever necessary with an interval of 20-25 days to remove the perennnial and large weeds.
• Mechanical weeding is done with the help of cono weeder or roto weeder.This is useful in the removal of small weeds like 2-3 leaved weeds.

Chemical control of weeds
• Pyrazosulfuron ethyl 10 % -250g / ha, mixed with 30 kg of sand or 500 lit of water and applied 3 - 5 days after transplanting. Or
• Pretilachlor 50 EC - 1.5 lit / ha, mixed with 30 kg of sand or 500 lit of water and applied 3 - 5 days after transplanting.Or
• Butachlor 5 % - 30 kg / ha, mixed with 30 kg of sand or 500 lit of water and applied 3 - 5 days after transplanting.
• Bensulfuron methyl + Pretilachlor (6.69) - 10 Kg / ha, mixed with 30 kg of sand or 500 lit of water and applied 3 - 5 days after transplanting.

Biological Weed Control
• Natural or biological weed control agents are those of biological origin, which suppress or kill the weeds without significantly affecting the desirable plants. They include insects, animals, fish (like Chinese carp), snails, birds (like duck), microbes (fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, etc.), their toxic products, and plants (parasite plants, competing plants) or their products.
• Animals, like pigs feed on the tubers of purple nutsedge (C. rotundus) in the off-season. In control of Ludwigia parviflora in rice fields, steel blue beetle (Haltica cyaamea) and larvae of Bactra verutana were found to bore into shoots of Cyperus rotundus.
• Plant pathogen, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sp. Aeschynomene was found effective for control of Aeschynomene virginica and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sp. Jussiaceae for the control of Ludwigia decurrens.
• Other Pathogens that have been shown potential as biological control agents for controlling weeds in rice, include Drechslera monoceras for the control of Echinochloa crusgalli, Epicoccosorus nematosporus for the control of Echinochloa kuroguwa. Biocontrol of E. kuroguwai has become possible by means of a plant pathogen, Epicoccosorus nematosporus, and of Scirpus planculmis by a pathogen Alternaria sp.

Related Terms: EISWeed Management
19
Nov

Water Management

Water management 

  • A thin film of water (2-3 cm) should be maintained at the time of weedicide application and should not be drained up to one week. Maintain water level at 5 cm depth during first seven days after planting and thereafter up to completion of tillering at 2 cm depth. 
  • Maintain water level at 5 cm depth from panicle initiation to grain maturity. Drain the water before fer tilizer application. Mid season drying discourages unproductive tillers. Drain the field one week before harvest.Drain the field and aerate whenever Sulphide injury occurs. Ensure drainage in deltaic alluvial soils (East and West Godavari and Nellore districts).
Water requirements of rice at different growth stages
S.No. Growth stage Depth of submergence (cm)
1. At transplanting 2
2.  After transplanting for 3 days (3 DAT)   5
  3. DAT up to max. tillering  2


  4. At max. tillering (in fer tile fields)  NIL


    (in fer tile fields) NIL 5.Max. tillering to PI 2 6.P1 to 21 DA flowering 5
19
Nov

Land Preperation

Land preparation typically involves ploughing, harrowing, and levelling the field to make it suitable  for crop establishment. Plough the field upto 12-15 cm deep so that the weeds and the stubbles get incorporated in the soil and get decomposed. •  Ploughing should be done 3-4 weeks prior to sowing. Draft animals, such as oxen, 2-wheel tractors or 4-wheel tractors can all be used ploughing the land effectively. •  After ploughing, harrowing should be done twice, with one week gap between the two. First harrowing should be done after 1 week of ploughing. The second harrowing should be done across the first harrowing. •  The land should be submerged in 2-5 cm of standing water so that pudding is done and decomposition of organic matter occurs soon. Bunds should be prepared and cleaned thoroughly as the harbour pests and diseases. •  Bunds should be compacted to prevent seepage, and properly maintained at 15 cm high x 20 cm wide to prevent rat burrowing.  The initial soil tillage can also be performed with a rotavator instead of a plough.

19
Nov

Seeds and Varietal Selection

Resistant Variety PESTS/DISEASES/ABIOTIC FACTORS VARIETIES RECOMMENDED Resistant for Diseases For blast Rasi, Samba Mahsuri, NLR 9672, NLR 9674, MTU 7014, NLR 13969, Tikkanna, Pinakini, NLR 28600, IR 20 For leaf blight Improved Samba Mahsuri, IR 36, IR 20 For tungro virus Vikrarmarya, IR 20 Resistant for Pests For Brown Plant Hopper Vajram, Pratibha, Sonasali, Krishnaveni, Chaitanya & Priya For gall midge IR 36, Phalguna, Surekha, Dhanyalakshm, MTU 2400, Divya, Pothana For stem borer Sasyasree Resistant to Abiotic factors Drought tolerant Rasi, MTU 17, Cold tolerant Satya, tella hamsa Saline tolerant Vikas High yielding varieties of Rice: Abhaya, Akshaya, Amara, APHR 1, APHR 2, Apurva, Badava Mahsuri, Bapatla Sannalu, Bhadrakali, Bharani, Bhavapuri Sannalu, Chaitanya, Chandan, Cottondora Sannalu, Deepti, Dhanya Lakshmi, Divya, DRRH 1, Early Samba, Erra Mallelu, Gautami, Godavari, Gutti Akkullu, Hamsa, Hari, Indra, Indur Samba, Jagtial Mahsuri, Jagtial Samba, Jagtial Sannalu, Kakatiya, Karimnagar Samba, Kavya, Kesava, Kotha Bayyahunda, Kothamolagolukulu 74, Krishna Hamsa, Krishnaveni, Lakshmi, Mahendra, Mahsuri Manair Sona, Maruteru Sannalu, Motigold, MTU 9993, Nagarjuna, Nagavali, Nandi, Nandyal Sannalu, Nellore Mahsuri, Orugallu Pardhiva, Penna, Phalguna, Pinakini, Polasa prabha-Mahsuri, Pothana, Prabhat, Prakash, Prasanna, Pratibha, Pushkala, Raja Vadlu, Rajendra, Ramappa, Ravi, Rudrama, Sagar Samba, Saleem, Samba Mahsuri, Satya, Seshu, Shanthi, Shiva, Shravani, Simhapuri, Somasila, Sonal, Sona Mahsuri, Sonasali, Sowbhagya,Sree Kurma,Srikakulam Sannalu, Srinivas, Sriranga, Srisatya, Sugandha Samba, Sumati, Surekha, Surya, Swarna, Swarnamukhi, Swathi, Taramati, Tella Hamsa Tholakari, Tikkana, Vajram, Vamsadhara, Vamshi, Varalu, Vasistha, Vasundhara, Vedagiri, Vibhava, Vijaya Mahsuri, Vijetha, Vikramarya, Warangal. Seed Treatment a. Wet method of Seed treatment Fungicide Concentration Dithane M 45 2.5 g/lt of water Captaf 2.5 g/lt of water. b. Dry method of seed treatment Fungicide Concentration Dithane M 45 2.5 g/kg of seed Captaf 2.5 g/kg of seed. Breaking dormancy For varieties having seed dormancy, treat the seed with 6.3 ml of concentrated Nitric acid dissolved in 1 lit of water. For strong dormant seeds, it is adviced to use 10ml of concentrated Nitric acid per 1ml of water and soak for 24 hr and then allow it for sprouting. Seed Treatment with Azospirillum • Three packets (600 g/ha) of Azospirillum and 3 packets (600 g/ha) of Phosphobacteria or 6 packets (1200 g/ha) of Azophos. • In bio-inoculants mixed with sufficient water wherein the seeds are soaked overnight before sowing in the nursery bed. Seed Treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens 1. Treat the seeds with talc based formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g/kg of seed and soak in 1 lit of water overnight. 2. Decant the excess water and allow the seeds to sprout for 24 hrs and then sow. Seed rate 1. Well germinated seeds are to be sown @ 650 g to 1 kg per bed depending on grain size. 2. Requirement of seed for transplanting one hectare of main field is 40 to 45 kg. 50 to 75 kg/ha. for broadcasted crop. 40 to 50 kg/ha. for drilling behind the gorru

19
Nov

Zinc Deficiency

  Symptom

 

Poor stand and establishment, lack of growth and tillering.

• Unhealthy and sickly appearance of crop at 3-4 weeks after transplantion even after receipt of adequate quantities of N,P and K fer tilizers

• Basal mid rib bleaching of 3rd / 4th leaf from top at about 2-4 weeks after transplantion.

• Dark brown rusty spots on the upper par t near the tips of older and mature leaves.

 

Correction

 

 

 Application of  zinc  sulphate  @   20 kg/ac at  puddling is  suggested  as  a prophylactic measure in Zinc deficient endemic soils

•  Deficiency in the standing crop can be corrected by spraying zinc sulphate @

0.2% (2  g/L of water). The spraying should be repeated at 5 days interval depending on the severity of the problem

•  Zinc sulphate solution should not  be mixed with any insecticide / fungicide

17
Nov

Nursery Management

Nursery management • Select well filled high density seed of variety suitable to the location/season. Nursery should be prepared nearer to the main field so as to minimize the shock during transplanting. Utmost care should be taken while preparing the nursery as it is the place where rice seedlings grow and establish. • Plough the soil thoroughly 3 to 4 times and level it perfectly. Make channels for irrigation water and drainage. Incorporate one tonne compost/FYM per 1000 m2 bed during last ploughing/puddling. • In locations of low temperature regimes (15-25oC) apply double the dose of phosphorus in two or three dressings • Protect against bird damage of seed by netting or taking colour ribbons Tips for Growing Nursery in AP/ Telangana • Plough the soil thoroughly 3 to 4 times and level it perfectly. Make channels for irrigation water and drainage. • For 5 cents of nursery bed apply 2kg. Nitrogen(1kg at the time of broadcasting the seed and another after 12 to 14 days) 1kg P O and 1kg Potash. In cold prone 2 5 areas apply double dose • Broadcast the sprouted seed 5kg /cent of soil. • Allow it to dry for some time and give slight irrigation at first leaf stage. • If zinc deficiency is noticed spray 2g ZnSO4 dissolved in 1 liter of water. In case of dry nursery if Iron deficiency is noticed spray 2% Ferrous sulphate solution. • Apply Carbofuran 3G granules 10 days after broadcasting the seed per cent of nursery @160g or Monocrotophos 1.6ml or Cloripyriphos 2.0 ml per liter of wate. Apply Carbofuran 3g granules @160g per cent of nursery week days before uprooting the nursery. • For 5 cents of nursery bed apply 2kg. Nitrogen (1 kg at the time of broadcasting the seed and another after 12 to 14 days) 1kg P2O5 and 1kg Potash. In cold prone areas apply double dose. • Broadcast the sprouted seed 5kg /cent of soil. Seeds should be free from weed seeds • Allow it to dry for some time and give slight irrigation at first leaf stage. • Weeding should be done once in 15-20 days as it helps seedlings grow effectively without competition for nutrients, water etc. • If zinc deficiency is noticed spray 2g ZnSO4 dissolved in 1 liter of water. In case of dry nursery if Iron deficiency is noticed spray 2% ferrous sulphate solution. • Apply Carbofuran 3G granules 10 days after broadcasting the seed per cent of nursery @160g or Monocrotophos 1.6ml or Cloripyriphos 2.0 ml per liter of wate. Apply Carbofuran 3g granules @160g per cent of nursery week days before uprooting the nursery. Types of Nurseries 1. Wet-Bed Nursery 2. Dry-Bed Nursery 3. Dapog or Mat nursery 4. Modified Mat Nursery

17
Nov

Nutrient Management

Sufficient amount of nutrients should be supplied to the crop right from transplanting to harvesting as it helps in better crop growth finally giving better yields. Ensure soil fer tility tests are done to your field and apply the nutrients accordingly recommended by the soil health report .
• 3-4 tons of FYM should be applied to the field at the time of ploughing
• Both oversupply and under supply of nutrients to the crop is a threat.
• Oversupply of nutrients results to increased susceptibility of the crop to pests, lodging, etc. 


Nursery


·        

Basal fer tilization with 0.5 kg of `N’; 0.5 kg of `P and 0.5 Kg of ‘K’ per every 100 sq m  is required to get robust seedlings, followed by another 0.5 kg `N’ at 12 days after sowing.

 


·        

Spray ZnSO4 @ 2.0 g /l for correction of Zinc deficiency  if deficiency  is observed.

 


·        

Spray 5-10 g ferrous sulphate (or) ferrous ammonium sulphate with 0.5 to 1.0 gram of citric acid per litre of water to correct Iron deficiency in the nursery crop.

 

Main Field

 


·        

Ameliorate soil acidity in upland soils of East Godavari, west Godavari and khammam districts by appropriate liming.

 


·        

In soils of excessive percolation use urea in 3-4 split dosesor use coated nitrogen fer tilizers such as neem coated urea in kavali area of Nellore and par ts of chittoor.

 


·        

Amelioration of salinity/alkalinity in east Godavari, west Godavari and Nellore districts through green manuring, drainage and appropriate Gypsum application

 


·        

Nitrogen is to be applied in three splits (at basal, at active tillering Stage & at Panicle Initiation stage) P & ‘K’ may  be applied as basal in heavy soils. In case of light soils, ‘K’ may  be applied in two equal splits i.e., at basal and at panicle initiation stage.

 


·        

For late planted conditions apply nitrogen in two splits only (65% basal and 35% at 20 DAT).


 

15
Mar

SULPHIDE DEFICIENCY

 SYMPTOMS:

  • Sudden foul smell of hydrogen sulphide resembling that of rotten eggs emits from soil
  • A black mark will be seen on the roots if plant is pulled out and examined, which turn to  reddish brown when exposed to air.
  • The crop starts wilting, older leaves become yellow and dry out prematurely
  • Parched appearance of field will be observed.

 

CORRECTION:

  • Application of nitrogenous fertilizer through neutral fertilizers like Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN)
  • Draining of soil frequently will reduce the sulphide injury.
File Courtesy: 
ANGRAU
15
Mar

SULPHIDE INJURY

Symptom 

Sudden foul smell of hydrogen sulphide resembling that of rotten eggs emits from soil

 A black mark will be seen on the roots if plant is pulled out and examined, which turn to reddish brown when exposed to air.

 The crop star ts wilting,  older leaves become yellow and dry out prematurely

•  Parched appearance of field will be observed. 

Correction 

 Application of   nitrogenous  fer tilizer through neutral fer tilizers like Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN)

 Draining of soil frequently  will reduce  the sulphide injury.

 

 

 

File Courtesy: 
ANGRAU
3
Sep

Farmer Cultivating Organic Rice

Name    K. Gopal
D.O.B    16-4-1971
Address    Duppalguda, Rajendranagar(M),
Ranga Reddy Dist., Hyderabad
Farming:    25 years

Related Terms: EISFarmers Innovation
17
Aug

Growth rates (1999-00 to 2005-06) of rice crop in Andhra Pradesh

1. The state recorded positive growth rate for only yield. Among the districts, Khammam is the only district recording positive compound growth rate (CGR), linear growth and percent increase for area, production and yield. 2. The growth in yield increased in majority of the districts like Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, Prakasam, Kurnool, Anantapur, Chittoor, Ranga Reddy, Nizamabad, Medak, Khammam, and Mahabubnagar. 3. In Nellore, Nalgonda and Warangal production also had positive growth rates in addition to yield. Negative growth rates are experienced in area, production and yield in Krishna district.

File Courtesy: 
Rice Almanac
Photo Courtesy: 
Rice Almanac
17
Aug

Overall major rice production constraints of Andhra Pradesh

1. Biotic:
• Pests: Brown planthopper, Whitebacked planthopper, Gall midge, Stem borer, Leaf folder, Gundhi bug
• Diseases: Blast, Bacterial leaf blight, Sheath blight, Sheath rot.

2. Abiotic: Submergence in coastal, Cold in Telangana, Drought in Chittoor, Srikakulam, Salinity-0.81 million hectares (Canal commands 0.14 mha, outside canal 0.39 mha, coastal areas 0.28 mha), Zinc deficiency, Drought (5.6% area in under rainfed rice).

File Courtesy: 
Rice Almanac
17
Aug

Varietal Information of Andhra Pradesh

1. Traditional rice varieties: Area under traditional rice varieties is limited. Earlier popular traditional varieties were Kichidi Samba, Rajahamsa, Amritsari, Kakirekkalu, Sanna Akkullu, Molagolukulu types, Oda sanndu, Tella danyalu, Nalla danyalu and Mettu danyalu.

2. Popular varieties
Swarna, Samba Mahsuri, Krishna Veni, Vijetha, IR 64, Rasi, Jaya, Polasa Prabha Mahsuri (JGL 384), Jagitial Sannalu (JGL 1798), Vasumati, Phalguna
Rabi: IR 64, Tella Hamsa, Vijetha, Rasi, Prabhat, Cottondora Sannalu (MTU 1010)

Area, Production and Productivity of indigenous aromatic varieties

File Courtesy: 
Rice Almanac
16
Aug

Rice research centres in Andhra Pradesh

Funded Centres: Maruteru, Warangal, Rajendranagar
Voluntary Centres: Baptala, Chintapally, Jagtial, Machilipatnam, Nellore, Ragolu

File Courtesy: 
Rice Almanac
16
Aug

Importance of agriculture in Andhra Pradesh state economy

1. Andhra Pradesh has 10.1 m ha cultivated area, constituting 37% of state’s total geographical area. The irrigated area is 36% of the cultivated area. Rice, sugarcane, black gram, chillies, mango, cotton and tobacco are the main crops. With cropping intensity of 122%, food grains production is 13.4 mt. Rice is grown in 3.98 m ha with a productivity level of 2.98 t/ha.

File Courtesy: 
Rice Almanac
16
Aug

Geography, Climate, AEZ, Soils of Andhra Pradesh

1. Andhra Pradesh is situated between 12041’ and 220 North latitude and 770 and 840 40 East longitude. It shares common boundaries with Madhya Pradesh and Orissa to the north, Bay of Bengal to the east, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka to the south and Maharashtra to the west.
2. The state has three distinct regions namely Coastal Andhra, Telangana and Rayalaseema. Krishna, Godavari and Penna rivers form the major water source.

File Courtesy: 
Rice Almanac
16
Aug

Andhra Pradesh

1. Date of formation: 1st Nov 1956
2. Area: 2,75,069 sq km
3. Capital: Hyderabad
4. Population: 76,210,007
5. No. of districts: 23
6. Villages: 26,613
7. Towns: 210
8. Per capita income at current prices (2005-2006): Rs 26,211

File Courtesy: 
Rice Almanac
25
Jul

Chemical control of pests at Post flowering stage in Central Telangana Zone

BPH/WBPH:

• The insecticides as recommended at boot stage should be used.

Cutworm:

• Irrigate the field and spray in the evening hours with any of the following combinations, dichlorvos @ 1.0 ml + endosulfan @ 2.0 ml (or) dichlorovos 1.0 ml + chlorpyriphos 2.5 ml/litre of water.

File Courtesy: 
APRRI, Maruteru
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